Abstract

The application of Raman scattering to remote sensing of subsurface water temperature and salinity is considered, and both theoretical and experimental aspects of the technique are discussed. Recent experimental field measurements obtained in coastal waters and on a trans-Atlantic/Mediterranean research cruise are correlated with theoretical expectations. It is concluded that the Raman technique for remote sensing of subsurface water temperature has been brought from theoretical and laboratory stages to the point where practical utilization can now be developed.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Lieberman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 1253 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Thomson et al., Nature 211, 1086 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. D. Worley, I. M. Klotz, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2868 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. F. Murphy, J. J. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Cunningham, P. A. Lyons, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2132 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Schwiesow, AIAA Paper 7-1086 (November1971).
  8. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, D. A. Leonard, “Remote Measurement of Fluid Temperature by Raman Scattered Radiation,” U. S. Patent3,986,775 filed 26December1974.
  9. R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, Appl. Opt. 14, 2116 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. G. Jerlov, “Optical Measurements in the Eastern North Atlantic,” Goteborg Kungl. Vetenskapsoch Vitterhets-Samhalles Handinger, Sjatte, Foljiden, Ser. B. 8, 11 (1961) (as described by R. E. Morrison, see Ref. 12); see also N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).
  12. E. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. F. Spilhaus, Limnol. Oceanogr. 13, 418 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. G. Hirschberg, Technical Report NASA contract NAS10-8795 (March1976).
  16. A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, Final Technical Report, NASA contract NAS1-11707, (August1975).
  17. G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, Nature 199, 1275 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. A. Leonard, Nature 216, 142 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. A. Salzman, T. A. Cooney, NASA Technical Note D-7669 (June1974).
  24. M. Lapp, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 107.
  25. H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, NASA Technical Note TN-D-8079 (October1975).
  26. I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.
  27. J. F. Fantasia, H. C. Ingrao, Final Report CG-D-86-75, U. S. Transportation Systems Center (February1975).
  28. H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 12, 1454 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. A. Leonard, Technical Report AFAPL-TR-74-100, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory (October1974).
  31. G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” presented at the SPIE 19th Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, 18–22 August 1975.
  32. S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., Report SIO-71-1 (June1971).
  33. E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), p. 245.
  34. B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965), p. 241
  35. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement From Raman Spectra,” Final Technical Report, contract N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (January1974).
  36. D. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 13, 2874 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. G. D. Gilbert et al., “Underwater Experiments in Polarization,” in Underwater Photo-Optics (SPIE, New York, 1966).
  38. M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 3–10.
  39. N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).
  40. D. D. Dylis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 49, 156 (1974); presented at the SPIE Impact of Lasers In Spectroscopy Conference, 19–20 August 1974, San Diego, California.

1977 (1)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (4)

D. B. Brown, H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 13, 2874 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Dylis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 49, 156 (1974); presented at the SPIE Impact of Lasers In Spectroscopy Conference, 19–20 August 1974, San Diego, California.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salzman, T. A. Cooney, NASA Technical Note D-7669 (June1974).

1973 (2)

H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 12, 1454 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Cunningham, P. A. Lyons, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2132 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

W. F. Murphy, J. J. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

E. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. F. Spilhaus, Limnol. Oceanogr. 13, 418 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, Nature 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

Thomson et al., Nature 211, 1086 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Worley, I. M. Klotz, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2868 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, Nature 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (2)

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451 (1961).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Jerlov, “Optical Measurements in the Eastern North Atlantic,” Goteborg Kungl. Vetenskapsoch Vitterhets-Samhalles Handinger, Sjatte, Foljiden, Ser. B. 8, 11 (1961) (as described by R. E. Morrison, see Ref. 12); see also N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

1956 (1)

J. Lieberman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 1253 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Bandy, A. R.

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, Final Technical Report, NASA contract NAS1-11707, (August1975).

Bernstein, J. J.

W. F. Murphy, J. J. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. B.

Caputo, B.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cervenka, P. O.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, NASA Technical Note TN-D-8079 (October1975).

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement From Raman Spectra,” Final Technical Report, contract N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (January1974).

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, D. A. Leonard, “Remote Measurement of Fluid Temperature by Raman Scattered Radiation,” U. S. Patent3,986,775 filed 26December1974.

Cooney, J.

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, T. A.

J. A. Salzman, T. A. Cooney, NASA Technical Note D-7669 (June1974).

Cunningham, K.

K. Cunningham, P. A. Lyons, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2132 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R. E.

R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V. E.

R. B. Slusher, V. E. Derr, Appl. Opt. 14, 2116 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 214 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., Report SIO-71-1 (June1971).

Dylis, D. D.

D. D. Dylis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 49, 156 (1974); presented at the SPIE Impact of Lasers In Spectroscopy Conference, 19–20 August 1974, San Diego, California.

Fantasia, J. F.

J. F. Fantasia, H. C. Ingrao, Final Report CG-D-86-75, U. S. Transportation Systems Center (February1975).

Ferguson, G. D.

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” presented at the SPIE 19th Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, 18–22 August 1975.

Fiocco, G.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, Nature 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, G. D.

G. D. Gilbert et al., “Underwater Experiments in Polarization,” in Underwater Photo-Optics (SPIE, New York, 1966).

Goodman, L. R.

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

Gordon, H. R.

Guenther, G. C.

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), p. 245.

Hirschberg, J. G.

J. G. Hirschberg, Technical Report NASA contract NAS10-8795 (March1976).

Hoge, F. E.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ingrao, H. C.

J. F. Fantasia, H. C. Ingrao, Final Report CG-D-86-75, U. S. Transportation Systems Center (February1975).

Itzkan, I.

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

Jerlov, N.

N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, “Optical Measurements in the Eastern North Atlantic,” Goteborg Kungl. Vetenskapsoch Vitterhets-Samhalles Handinger, Sjatte, Foljiden, Ser. B. 8, 11 (1961) (as described by R. E. Morrison, see Ref. 12); see also N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

Johnson, R. L.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. H.

H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 12, 1454 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, NASA Technical Note TN-D-8079 (October1975).

Kinsman, B.

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965), p. 241

Klotz, I. M.

J. D. Worley, I. M. Klotz, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2868 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Lankford, C. B.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, NASA Technical Note TN-D-8079 (October1975).

Lapp, M.

M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 3–10.

M. Lapp, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 107.

Lawrence, J.

S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. A.

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, Nature 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, D. A. Leonard, “Remote Measurement of Fluid Temperature by Raman Scattered Radiation,” U. S. Patent3,986,775 filed 26December1974.

D. A. Leonard, Technical Report AFAPL-TR-74-100, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory (October1974).

Lieberman, J.

J. Lieberman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 1253 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, P. A.

K. Cunningham, P. A. Lyons, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2132 (1973).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M.

S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S.

S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, E. E.

E. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, W. F.

W. F. Murphy, J. J. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Penny, C. M.

M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 3–10.

Salzman, J. A.

J. A. Salzman, T. A. Cooney, NASA Technical Note D-7669 (June1974).

Schwiesow, R. L.

R. L. Schwiesow, AIAA Paper 7-1086 (November1971).

Slusher, R. B.

Smullin, L. D.

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, Nature 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Spilhaus, A. F.

A. F. Spilhaus, Limnol. Oceanogr. 13, 418 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, R. G.

R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

Thomas, R. W.

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

Thomson,

Thomson et al., Nature 211, 1086 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Worley, J. D.

J. D. Worley, I. M. Klotz, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2868 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Young, L. A.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, D. A. Leonard, “Remote Measurement of Fluid Temperature by Raman Scattered Radiation,” U. S. Patent3,986,775 filed 26December1974.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement From Raman Spectra,” Final Technical Report, contract N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (January1974).

Zajac, A.

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), p. 245.

Zimmerman, A.

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, Final Technical Report, NASA contract NAS1-11707, (August1975).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Melfi, J. Lawrence, M. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, R. L. Johnson, F. E. Hoge; Geophys. Res. Lett. 4, 279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Goteborg Kungl. Vetenskapsoch Vitterhets-Samhalles Handinger, Sjatte, Foljiden (1)

N. G. Jerlov, “Optical Measurements in the Eastern North Atlantic,” Goteborg Kungl. Vetenskapsoch Vitterhets-Samhalles Handinger, Sjatte, Foljiden, Ser. B. 8, 11 (1961) (as described by R. E. Morrison, see Ref. 12); see also N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Lieberman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 1253 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. D. Worley, I. M. Klotz, J. Chem. Phys. 45, 2868 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

K. Cunningham, P. A. Lyons, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 2132 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

E. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. F. Murphy, J. J. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 76, 1147 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

J. E. Tyler, Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 451 (1961).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Spilhaus, Limnol. Oceanogr. 13, 418 (1968).
[CrossRef]

NASA Technical Note D-7669 (1)

J. A. Salzman, T. A. Cooney, NASA Technical Note D-7669 (June1974).

Nature (3)

G. Fiocco, L. D. Smullin, Nature 199, 1275 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Leonard, Nature 216, 142 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Thomson et al., Nature 211, 1086 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. D. Dylis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 49, 156 (1974); presented at the SPIE Impact of Lasers In Spectroscopy Conference, 19–20 August 1974, San Diego, California.

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 101 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

M. Lapp, in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), p. 107.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, NASA Technical Note TN-D-8079 (October1975).

I. Itzkan et al., G. C. Guenther, R. W. Thomas, and R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in CLEOS, 7–9 February 1978, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington D. C., 1978, papers THCC3, THCC4, and THCC5.

J. F. Fantasia, H. C. Ingrao, Final Report CG-D-86-75, U. S. Transportation Systems Center (February1975).

R. L. Schwiesow, AIAA Paper 7-1086 (November1971).

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, D. A. Leonard, “Remote Measurement of Fluid Temperature by Raman Scattered Radiation,” U. S. Patent3,986,775 filed 26December1974.

J. G. Hirschberg, Technical Report NASA contract NAS10-8795 (March1976).

A. Zimmerman, A. R. Bandy, Final Technical Report, NASA contract NAS1-11707, (August1975).

G. D. Gilbert et al., “Underwater Experiments in Polarization,” in Underwater Photo-Optics (SPIE, New York, 1966).

M. Lapp, C. M. Penny, Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 3–10.

N. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

D. A. Leonard, Technical Report AFAPL-TR-74-100, Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory (October1974).

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Applications,” presented at the SPIE 19th Annual International Technical Symposium, San Diego, 18–22 August 1975.

S. Q. Duntley, “Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography, San Diego, Calif., Report SIO-71-1 (June1971).

E. Hecht, A. Zajac, Optics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1974), p. 245.

B. Kinsman, Wind Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965), p. 241

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement From Raman Spectra,” Final Technical Report, contract N62269-73-C-0073, sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency, ARPA Order 2194 (January1974).

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