Abstract

Spectroreflectometry was used to measure the refractive index of the following optical coating materials:Ta2O5, HfO2, Y2O3, La2O3, ZrO2, CeO2, CeF3, LaF3, NdF3, MgF2 in the 250–2000-nm spectral range.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Black, J. Wales, Infrared Phys. 8, 209 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Ritter, “Dielectric Film Materials for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol 8.
  3. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, R. Thun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 116 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Heitmann, Appl. Opt. 12, 394 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Baumeister, O. Arnon, Appl. Opt. 16, 439 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Ritter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2318 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Nigara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 404 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Frank, R. Groth, Thin Solid Films 3, 41 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).
  10. D. Conlon, W. P. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 4315 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. S. Sokolova, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 454 (1976).
  12. J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).
  13. F. Stetter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2315 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, R. Thun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 324 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, Thin Solid Films 30, 361 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. A. Vermilyea, Acta Metall. 1282 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Charlesby, V. V. Polling, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 277, 434 (1953).
  18. J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 244, 41 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 4.
  21. J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, Appl. Opt. 11, 1749 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. Fletcher, M. Powell, Comput. J. 6, 163 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Baumeister, D. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1284 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Abeles, C.R. Acad. Sci. 228, 553 (1949).

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1976 (4)

F. Stetter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2315 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ritter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2318 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Sokolova, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 454 (1976).

J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).

1975 (1)

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, Thin Solid Films 30, 361 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

B. Frank, R. Groth, Thin Solid Films 3, 41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

P. Black, J. Wales, Infrared Phys. 8, 209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nigara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).

1965 (1)

D. Conlon, W. P. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 4315 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

R. Fletcher, M. Powell, Comput. J. 6, 163 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

1958 (2)

L. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 244, 41 (1958).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, R. Thun, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 324 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1953 (2)

D. A. Vermilyea, Acta Metall. 1282 (1953).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlesby, V. V. Polling, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 277, 434 (1953).

1952 (1)

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

F. Abeles, C.R. Acad. Sci. 228, 553 (1949).

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, C.R. Acad. Sci. 228, 553 (1949).

Arnon, O.

Ashley, E. J.

Baumeister, P.

Bennett, H. E.

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 4.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, E. J. Ashley, Appl. Opt. 11, 1749 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 4.

Black, P.

P. Black, J. Wales, Infrared Phys. 8, 209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Charlesby, A.

A. Charlesby, V. V. Polling, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 277, 434 (1953).

Conlon, D.

D. Conlon, W. P. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 4315 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, W. P.

D. Conlon, W. P. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 4315 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, J.

J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).

Fletcher, R.

R. Fletcher, M. Powell, Comput. J. 6, 163 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Frank, B.

B. Frank, R. Groth, Thin Solid Films 3, 41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, M.

J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).

Groth, R.

B. Frank, R. Groth, Thin Solid Films 3, 41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heitmann, W.

Khawaja, E. E.

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, Thin Solid Films 30, 361 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Motovilov, O. A.

O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).

Nigara, Y.

Y. Nigara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Polling, V. V.

A. Charlesby, V. V. Polling, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 277, 434 (1953).

Powell, M.

R. Fletcher, M. Powell, Comput. J. 6, 163 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, J. B.

Ritter, E.

E. Ritter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2318 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ritter, “Dielectric Film Materials for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol 8.

Rozhdestvenskii, V. N.

O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).

Rudina, O. G.

O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).

Smith, D.

Sokolova, R. S.

R. S. Sokolova, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 454 (1976).

Stetter, F.

J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).

F. Stetter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2315 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturdy, G. E.

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Thun, R.

Tipton, C. R.

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Tomlin, S. G.

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, Thin Solid Films 30, 361 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Vermilyea, D. A.

D. A. Vermilyea, Acta Metall. 1282 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Waber, J. T.

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wales, J.

P. Black, J. Wales, Infrared Phys. 8, 209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wise, E. M.

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Young, L.

L. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 244, 41 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Acta Metall. (1)

D. A. Vermilyea, Acta Metall. 1282 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

C.R. Acad. Sci. (1)

F. Abeles, C.R. Acad. Sci. 228, 553 (1949).

Comput. J. (1)

R. Fletcher, M. Powell, Comput. J. 6, 163 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

P. Black, J. Wales, Infrared Phys. 8, 209 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Conlon, W. P. Doyle, J. Chem. Phys. 42, 4315 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. T. Waber, G. E. Sturdy, E. M. Wise, C. R. Tipton, J. Electrochem. Soc. 99, 121 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Nigara, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 404 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (2)

L. Young, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 244, 41 (1958).
[CrossRef]

A. Charlesby, V. V. Polling, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 277, 434 (1953).

Res. Dev. (1)

J. Feldman, M. Fritz, F. Stetter, Res. Dev. 27, 49 (1976).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (2)

R. S. Sokolova, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 41, 454 (1976).

O. A. Motovilov, V. N. Rozhdestvenskii, O. G. Rudina, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 34, 803 (1967).

Thin Solid Films (2)

B. Frank, R. Groth, Thin Solid Films 3, 41 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Khawaja, S. G. Tomlin, Thin Solid Films 30, 361 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1972), Vol. 4.

E. Ritter, “Dielectric Film Materials for Optical Applications,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. Francombe, R. Hoffman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), Vol 8.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The measured refractive index of a Ta2O5 film after removal from the chamber (a) and postbaked in air at 400°C for 14 h (b). Shown also are the n(λ) data of Vermilyea16 ▲, Charlesby17 ●, Waber18 ▽, Young19 ○.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The measured transmittance (after correction for Fresnel losses) of a film of HfO2 deposited upon a fused silica substrate after removal from the chamber (solid) and after postbaking in air at 400°C for 14 h (dashed).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The caption to Fig. 2 obtains, but the material is Y2O3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The caption to Fig. 2 obtains, but the radiant reflectance is plotted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The caption to Fig. 4 obtains, with exception that the material is Y2O3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured refractive index as computed from Eq. (4) via the constants listed in Table II for the unbaked (a) and baked (b) coatings (see Figs. 7, 8, and 9).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The measured refractive index as computed from Eq. (4) via the constants listed in Table II for the unbaked (a) and baked (b) coatings (see Figs. 6, 8, and 9).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The measured refractive index as computed from Eq. (4) via the constants listed in Table II for the unbaked (a) and baked (b) coatings (see Figs. 6, 7, and 9).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The measured refractive index as computed from Eq. (4) via the constants listed in Table II for the unbaked (a) and baked (b) coatings (see Figs. 6, 7, and 8).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The measured refractive index of a HfO2 film after removal from the chamber (solid) and after baking in air for 4 h at 400°C (dashed).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The measured refractive index of two different Y2O3 samples after removal from the chamber (a), (c) and after baking in air for 4 h at 400°C (b), (d).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Form and Vendor of the Evaporant, the Voltage (in kV) and Current (in A) Needed for Evaporation via the Electron Gun, Approximate Evaporation Rate, and References to the Literature

Tables Icon

Table II Experimentally Determined Optical Parameters

Tables Icon

Table III Measured Extinction Coefficient k as Determined from the Radiant Absorption A at the Wavelength Indicated

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T f T m ( 1 - R ) 1 + R ( 1 - T m ) ,
R = a 0 cos 2 β + a 2 sin 2 β a 1 cos 2 β + a 3 sin 2 β ,
β = 2 π σ n h ,
n 2 = A + B σ 2 .
A T k [ ( n 2 - n s 2 ) sin 2 β + 2 β ( n 2 + n s 2 ) ] 2 n s ( n 2 + k 2 ) .

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