Abstract

Reflection polarizers and analyzers for the extreme uv spectral region are discussed. The conditions for optimum polarization are presented, and the polarization characteristics of a number of metal coatings, including gold and some of the platinum metals, are given. The performance of three- and four-mirror polarizers, using these metal coatings, is discussed. The properties required of a polarization analyzer are presented, and the performance of single and three- and four-reflection analyzers are discussed in terms of the optical properties of coating materials that might be useful for analyzers.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. G. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964);D. L. Steinmetz, W. G. Phillips, M. Wirick, F. F. Forbes, Appl. Opt. 6, 1001 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. C. Walker, Appl. Opt. 3, 1457 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, in Recent Advances in Optical Physics: Proceedings of the ICO-10, B. Havelka, J. Blabla, Eds. (Polygrafia Printing House/Prometheus, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1976), p. 721.
  4. T. Sasaki, H. Fukutani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 125 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. R. Hunter, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Supp. 1), 520 (1965).
  6. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, Applied Optics 17, 76 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Damany, Opt. Acta 12, 95 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Hass, Night Vision Laboratory; unpublished data.
  10. W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Hass, G. F. Jacobus, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 360 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Rosenbaum, B. Feuerbacher, R. P. Godwin, M. Skibowski, Appl. Opt. 7, 1917 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. H. Hancock, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 9, 211 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. N. Hamm, R. N. MacRae, E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1460 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. G. Horton, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Appl. Opt. 8, 667 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. W. R. Hunter, J. F. Osantowski, G. Hass, Appl. Opt. 10, 540 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 4, 1005 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Abeles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1942 (1950).
  26. T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

1978 (1)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, Applied Optics 17, 76 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (3)

W. H. Hancock, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 9, 211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

1974 (2)

H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

1969 (2)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

1966 (1)

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (4)

1964 (4)

T. Sasaki, H. Fukutani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964);D. L. Steinmetz, W. G. Phillips, M. Wirick, F. F. Forbes, Appl. Opt. 6, 1001 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Walker, Appl. Opt. 3, 1457 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

F. Abeles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1942 (1950).

Abeles, F.

F. Abeles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1942 (1950).

Arakawa, E. T.

Bukow, H. H.

H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 4, 1005 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. T.

Damany, H.

H. Damany, Opt. Acta 12, 95 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Feuerbacher, B.

Fukutani, H.

T. Sasaki, H. Fukutani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Godwin, R. P.

Hamm, R. N.

Hancock, W. H.

W. H. Hancock, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 9, 211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, W. F.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, Applied Optics 17, 76 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 360 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Osantowski, G. Hass, Appl. Opt. 10, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, G. F. Jacobus, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, Night Vision Laboratory; unpublished data.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, in Recent Advances in Optical Physics: Proceedings of the ICO-10, B. Havelka, J. Blabla, Eds. (Polygrafia Printing House/Prometheus, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1976), p. 721.

Heckman, P. H.

H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Horton, V. G.

Hunter, W. R.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, Applied Optics 17, 76 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 423 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 435 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 360 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. F. Osantowski, G. Hass, Appl. Opt. 10, 540 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, G. F. Jacobus, W. R. Hunter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 758 (1967).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Supp. 1), 520 (1965).

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, in Recent Advances in Optical Physics: Proceedings of the ICO-10, B. Havelka, J. Blabla, Eds. (Polygrafia Printing House/Prometheus, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1976), p. 721.

Jacobus, G. F.

Johnson, W. G.

W. G. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964);D. L. Steinmetz, W. G. Phillips, M. Wirick, F. F. Forbes, Appl. Opt. 6, 1001 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kozhevnikov, A. V.

T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

Kuebler, N. A.

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
[CrossRef]

MacRae, R. N.

Madden, R. P.

Malo, S. A.

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, M. M.

T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

Osantowski, J. F.

Pao, Yoh-Han

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rabinovitch, K.

Ramsey, J. B.

Remneva, T. A.

T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

Robin, M. B.

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbaum, G.

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Hancock, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 9, 211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Sasaki, H. Fukutani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Skibowski, M.

Walker, W. C.

Williams, M. W.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Horton, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Appl. Opt. 8, 667 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winter, H.

H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Applied Optics (1)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, Applied Optics 17, 76 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

F. Abeles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 230, 1942 (1950).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

W. H. Hancock, J. A. R. Samson, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 9, 211 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 124 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

W. R. Hunter, S. A. Malo, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 30, 2739 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Sasaki, H. Fukutani, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 3, 125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Supp. 1), 520 (1965).

Opt. Acta (1)

H. Damany, Opt. Acta 12, 95 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Winter, H. H. Bukow, P. H. Heckman, Opt. Commun. 11, 299 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, Yoh-Han Pao, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 37, 922 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964);D. L. Steinmetz, W. G. Phillips, M. Wirick, F. F. Forbes, Appl. Opt. 6, 1001 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

T. A. Remneva, A. V. Kozhevnikov, M. M. Nikitin, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 25, 1098 (1976);J. Appl. Spectrosc. 25, 1587 (1977).

Other (2)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, in Recent Advances in Optical Physics: Proceedings of the ICO-10, B. Havelka, J. Blabla, Eds. (Polygrafia Printing House/Prometheus, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1976), p. 721.

G. Hass, Night Vision Laboratory; unpublished data.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated reflectances, Rs and Rp, and polarization (Rs/Rp) vs angle of incidence for the optical constants 1.16 + i0.71. The reflectance scale is on the left and polarization on the right. The short vertical line locates the minimum value of Rp, and the long vertical dash-dot line locates the maximum polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated polarization (Rs/Rp) for a range of values of n and k usually found in the vacuum UV spectral region. The curves show that maximum polarization occurs for large n and small k.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated maximum polarization (Rs/Rp) and the corresponding Rs and angles of incidence for crystalline MgF2 from 300 Å to 2000 Å. From about 1100 Å to 2000 Å, the angle of incidence shown in the curve is the Brewster angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated maximum polarization (Rs/Rp) and the corresponding Rs and angles of incidence for gold from 300 Å to 2000 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagrams of three- and four-mirror polarizers. The heavy line shows the central ray and the dashed line an oblique ray. All angles of incidence equal α for the four-mirror polarizer. For the three-mirror polarizer, 2αβ = 90°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

R1/R2 vs g for different values of P. P = 318 is represented by the dash–dot line, and P = 1116 is represented by the dashed line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Error in determining g as a function of angle of incidence for four values of g and for the optical constants 1.16 + i0.71, the same optical constants used in calculating the curves of Fig. 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Isoerror contours in the n,k plane showing how the sensitivity of a single 45° mirror analyzer depends on n and k. The irregular line represents the optical constants of gold from 300 Å to 2000 Å. The tick marks represent 100-Å intervals. g values are shown at the upper right of each rectangle.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Isoerror contours in the n,k plane showing how the sensitivity of a single 60° mirror analyzer depends on n and k. The irregular line represents the optical constants of gold from 300 Å to 2000 Å. The tick marks represent 100-Å intervals. g values are shown at the upper right of each rectangle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Isoerror contours in the n,k plane showing how the sensitivity of four-mirror analyzers with angles of incidence of 45°, 60°, 70°, and 80° depend on n and k. The g value for each section of the figure is 0.1. The irregular line in the section for 80° represents the optical constants of gold from 300 Å to 2000 Å. The tick marks represent 100-Å intervals. The angle of incidence is shown at the upper right of each rectangle.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Calculated Polarization (Rs/Rp)max, Throughput (Rs), and the Angle of Incidence at Which the Polarization Occurs for Au, Ir, Os, Rh, and Ru

Tables Icon

Table II Calculated Polarization, Throughput, and Angular Limit of a Four-Mirror Polarizer Using Gold Mirror Coatings

Tables Icon

Table III Calculated Polarization, Throughput, and Angular Limit of a Three-Mirror Polarizer Using Gold Mirror Coatings

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R 1 = ( I p R s + I s R p ) / ( I p + I s ) .
R 2 = ( I p R p + I s R s ) / ( I p + I s ) .
R 1 = ( R p + gR s ) / ( 1 + g ) , R 2 = ( R p g + R s ) / ( 1 + g ) .
g = [ 1 ( R 1 / R 2 ) P ] / [ ( R 1 / R 2 ) P ] .
g = { R 2 [ 1 + 4 ( R 1 + R 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ( R 2 + 2 R 1 ) } / { R 1 [ 1 + 4 ( R 1 + R 2 ) ] 1 / 2 ( R 1 + 2 R 2 ) } ,

Metrics