Abstract

A detailed experimental and theoretical study of narrow ridge waveguides in glass films formed by ion-etching of patterns in photoresist has been carried out. Because the resultant waveguide profiles are trapezoidal a numerical approach, the finite-element method, has been used to compute theoretical dispersion curves. Experimental dispersion curves were obtained from measurements of output m-lines. Agreement between experiment and theory varies from moderately good to excellent over the range of waveguide profiles studied.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Tamir, Ed.,Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).
  2. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
  3. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 645 (1974).
  4. J. W. Goell, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2133 (1969);also M. Ohtaka, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 378 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Vandenbulcke, P. E. Lagasse, Electron. Lett. 12, 120 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. J. Czendes, P. Silvester, Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. MTT-18, 1124 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Ulrich, R. Torge, Appl. Opt. 12, 2901 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. G. Gallagher, R. M. De La, Rue, Electron, Lett. 12, 397 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. I. Smith, Proc. IEEE 62, 1361 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, Wave Electron. 1, 117 (1974/75).
  13. W. T. Tsang, C-C Tseng, S. Wang, Appl. Opt. 14, 1200 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Sasaki, R. M. De La Rue, Electron Lett. 12, 495 (1976).

1976 (5)

P. Vandenbulcke, P. E. Lagasse, Electron. Lett. 12, 120 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. G. Gallagher, R. M. De La, Rue, Electron, Lett. 12, 397 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
[Crossref]

W. T. Tsang, C-C Tseng, S. Wang, Appl. Opt. 14, 1200 (1976).
[Crossref]

H. Sasaki, R. M. De La Rue, Electron Lett. 12, 495 (1976).

1974 (2)

H. I. Smith, Proc. IEEE 62, 1361 (1974).
[Crossref]

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 645 (1974).

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

Z. J. Czendes, P. Silvester, Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. MTT-18, 1124 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (3)

J. W. Goell, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2133 (1969);also M. Ohtaka, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 378 (1976).
[Crossref]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[Crossref]

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Czendes, Z. J.

Z. J. Czendes, P. Silvester, Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. MTT-18, 1124 (1970).
[Crossref]

De La, R. M.

J. G. Gallagher, R. M. De La, Rue, Electron, Lett. 12, 397 (1976).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

H. Sasaki, R. M. De La Rue, Electron Lett. 12, 495 (1976).

Gallagher, J. G.

J. G. Gallagher, R. M. De La, Rue, Electron, Lett. 12, 397 (1976).
[Crossref]

Goell, J. W.

J. W. Goell, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2133 (1969);also M. Ohtaka, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 378 (1976).
[Crossref]

Hutchins, R. H.

C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
[Crossref]

Lagasse, P. E.

P. Vandenbulcke, P. E. Lagasse, Electron. Lett. 12, 120 (1976).
[Crossref]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
[Crossref]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 645 (1974).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[Crossref]

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
[Crossref]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, Wave Electron. 1, 117 (1974/75).

Roy, A. M.

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, Wave Electron. 1, 117 (1974/75).

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, R. M. De La Rue, Electron Lett. 12, 495 (1976).

Silvester, P.

Z. J. Czendes, P. Silvester, Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. MTT-18, 1124 (1970).
[Crossref]

Smith, H. I.

H. I. Smith, Proc. IEEE 62, 1361 (1974).
[Crossref]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[Crossref]

Torge, R.

Tsang, W. T.

Tseng, C-C

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, R. Torge, Appl. Opt. 12, 2901 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[Crossref]

Vandenbulcke, P.

P. Vandenbulcke, P. E. Lagasse, Electron. Lett. 12, 120 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 645 (1974).

J. W. Goell, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2133 (1969);also M. Ohtaka, M. Matsuhara, N. Kumagai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 378 (1976).
[Crossref]

Electron Lett. (1)

H. Sasaki, R. M. De La Rue, Electron Lett. 12, 495 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Vandenbulcke, P. E. Lagasse, Electron. Lett. 12, 120 (1976).
[Crossref]

Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. (1)

Z. J. Czendes, P. Silvester, Microwave Theory Tech. IEEE Trans. MTT-18, 1124 (1970).
[Crossref]

Microwaves Opt. Acoust. (1)

C. A. Millar, R. H. Hutchins, P. J. R. Laybourn, Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 1, 27 (1976),also C. A. Millar “Evanescent field coupling of thin film and fiber optical waveguides,” Thesis, U. Glasgow (1976).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. I. Smith, Proc. IEEE 62, 1361 (1974).
[Crossref]

Rue, Electron, Lett. (1)

J. G. Gallagher, R. M. De La, Rue, Electron, Lett. 12, 397 (1976).
[Crossref]

Wave Electron. (1)

D. B. Ostrowsky, A. M. Roy, Wave Electron. 1, 117 (1974/75).

Other (1)

T. Tamir, Ed.,Integrated Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoresist ridge before baking, on cleaved glass. Markers are 1 μm long.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoresist ridge before baking, exhibiting aperture diffraction in the exposure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoresist ridge after baking. Markers are 10 μm long.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ion-beam etched ridge waveguide of trapezoidal section shown end-on after cleaving. 1-μm markers are not corrected for tilt. The lower diagram is a schematic to aid visualization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

m-line from a ridge waveguide capable of supporting only one TE mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

m-lines from a ridge waveguide supporting five modes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical triangulation used for finite element calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Computed dispersion curves for one guide of set A, cross-sectional details inset.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Computed dispersion curves for one guide of set C, cross-sectional details inset.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental and theoretical dispersion curves, plotted as β/k0 vs base width a2 at fixed wavelength (0.633 μm). Characteristic cross-section inset, with average side-wall slope angles indicated: (a) guide set A; (b) guide set B; (c) guide set C. Theoretical results for the mode have been omitted because of their inherently reduced accuracy.

Metrics