Abstract

Piezoelectric detection of photoacoustic signals offers a number of advantages over the better known microphonic technique for condensed phase samples. Experimental techniques are greatly simplified by taking advantage of the acoustic impedance match offered by solid state detectors with solid or liquid samples. Such piezoelectric detectors prove suitable for ac steady state measurements as well as impulse-transient response detectors. Several example spectra of Nd(III) are presented with emphasis on the effects of the fluorescence-lifetime in Nd:glass laser material.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. G. Bell, Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).
  2. A. Rosencwaig, Anal. Chem. 47, 592A (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Opt. 15, 2658 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Opt. 15, 2967 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4822 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Callis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 413 (1976).
  8. M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 169 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. White, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2123, 3559 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Brienza, A. J. DeMaria, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 44 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. M. Percival, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5313 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. E. Lee, R. M. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 12 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. C. Bushnell, D. J. McCloskey, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 554 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Blitz, Fundamentals of Ultrasonics (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 26.
  16. Ref. 15, p. 25.
  17. Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. G. Young, Proc. IEEE 57, 1271 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. White in Physical AcousticsW. P. Mason, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1964) (Vol. 1, Part B) p. 351.
  20. R. J. Von Gutfeld, R. L. Melcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 257 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1977 (3)

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Von Gutfeld, R. L. Melcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 257 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (3)

1975 (3)

A. Rosencwaig, Anal. Chem. 47, 592A (1975).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4822 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. G. Young, Proc. IEEE 57, 1271 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

R. E. Lee, R. M. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 12 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bushnell, D. J. McCloskey, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 554 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

M. J. Brienza, A. J. DeMaria, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 44 (1967).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Percival, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5313 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

R. M. White, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2123, 3559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1881 (1)

A. G. Bell, Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Blitz, J.

J. Blitz, Fundamentals of Ultrasonics (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 26.

Brienza, M. J.

M. J. Brienza, A. J. DeMaria, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 44 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bushnell, J. C.

J. C. Bushnell, D. J. McCloskey, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 554 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Callis, J. B.

J. B. Callis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 413 (1976).

DeMaria, A. J.

M. J. Brienza, A. J. DeMaria, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 44 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Harschbarger, W. R.

K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hordvik, A.

Kaya, K.

K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kniseley, R. N.

Kohanzadeh, Y.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, N. A.

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4822 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. E.

R. E. Lee, R. M. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 12 (1968).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, J. F.

McCloskey, D. J.

J. C. Bushnell, D. J. McCloskey, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 554 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Melcher, R. L.

R. J. Von Gutfeld, R. L. Melcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 257 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Percival, C. M.

C. M. Percival, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5313 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Robin, M. B.

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4822 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, Anal. Chem. 47, 592A (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schlossberg, H.

Von Gutfeld, R. J.

R. J. Von Gutfeld, R. L. Melcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 257 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

White, D. L.

D. L. White in Physical AcousticsW. P. Mason, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1964) (Vol. 1, Part B) p. 351.

White, R. M.

R. E. Lee, R. M. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 12 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. M. White, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2123, 3559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Young, C. G.

C. G. Young, Proc. IEEE 57, 1271 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. Rosencwaig, Anal. Chem. 47, 592A (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. J. Von Gutfeld, R. L. Melcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 257 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Brienza, A. J. DeMaria, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 44 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Lee, R. M. White, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 12 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 97, 4822 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. C. Bushnell, D. J. McCloskey, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 554 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Percival, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5313 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. M. White, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2123, 3559 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

K. Kaya, W. R. Harschbarger, M. B. Robin, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4231 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Robin, N. A. Kuebler, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: (1)

J. B. Callis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 413 (1976).

Philos. Mag. (1)

A. G. Bell, Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. G. Young, Proc. IEEE 57, 1271 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. L. White in Physical AcousticsW. P. Mason, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1964) (Vol. 1, Part B) p. 351.

J. Blitz, Fundamentals of Ultrasonics (Plenum, New York, 1967), p. 26.

Ref. 15, p. 25.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of photoacoustic spectrometer incorporating a piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PAS spectrum of Nd2O3 powder. To avoid spurious signals from scattered light, the sample is imbedded in a cyanoacrylate matrix and placed on a front surface mirror backed by a barium titanate transducer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of optical and PAS spectra of a Nd:glass laser rod.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A comparison of the response of a flat black paint–mirror– piezoelectric transducer system to both square wave (lower) and sinusoidally modulated (upper) excitation at 488 nm and an average power of ∼190 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A comparison of PAS spectra of Nd:glass obtained with a focused and unfocused, modulated dye laser light source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of a transient response PAS system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transient response of Nd:glass to a 1-msec pulse at 514.5 nm: (a) fluorescence signal; (b) PAS signal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Energy level diagram of Nd3+ in a glass host.

Equations (1)

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α t = ( 4 R 1 R 2 ) / [ ( R 1 + R 1 ) 2 ] ,

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