Abstract

A servocontrolled 1-m plane-parallel Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed at NPL for the precise intercomparison of laser wavelengths. This instrument has been used to measure the wavelength ratio of a 679-nm radiation and that from a 633-nm iodine-stabilized He–Ne laser, achieving an accuracy of 2.9 parts in 1011. The 679-nm light was derived from a stabilized CO2 laser radiation by upconversion, and the wavelength of this 9.3-μm laser radiation can be calculated from the visible wavelength result. Frequency measurements on the same CO2 laser radiation have already been made in this laboratory, so that the experiment reported here leads to a precise value for the speed of light in vacuum and to the value of 473, 612, 380.5 ± 0.3 MHz for the absolute frequency of the visible radiation from a He–Ne laser stabilized to component d of127I2.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Baird, G. R. Hanes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 37,927 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. E. 9, 898 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).
  4. W. R. C. Rowley, A. J. Wallard, J. Phys. E. 6, 647 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. E. Knight, Comm. l'Organisation du Colloque Internat. sur d'Electronique et la Mesure, Paris (1975), p. 42.
  6. W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. R. C. Rowley, P. T. Woods, in Proceedings 4th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, London, 1972), p. 311.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 410.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23,532 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 10,475 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. C. Shotton, W. R. C. Rowley, National Physical Laboratory Report, QU-28 (1975).
  13. T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, J. Phys. E. 9, 395 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Terrien, Rep. Prog. Phys. 39, 1067 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Terrien, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 215 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. P. Layer, R. D. Deslattes, W. G. Schweitzer, Appl. Opt. 15, 734 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. R. C. Rowley, in Rep. 5th Session of the Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (OFFILIB, Paris, 1973).
  20. K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

1976 (6)

D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. E. 9, 898 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, J. Phys. E. 9, 395 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Terrien, Rep. Prog. Phys. 39, 1067 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Layer, R. D. Deslattes, W. G. Schweitzer, Appl. Opt. 15, 734 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (3)

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23,532 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Baird, G. R. Hanes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 37,927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (5)

W. R. C. Rowley, A. J. Wallard, J. Phys. E. 6, 647 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Schweitzer, E. G. Kessler, R. D. Deslattes, H. P. Layer, J. R. Whetstone, Appl. Opt. 12, 2927 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Terrien, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 10,475 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Baird, K. M.

K. M. Baird, G. R. Hanes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 37,927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Blaney, T. G.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C. C.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J. M.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, B. L.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Day, G. W.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Deslattes, R. D.

Edwards, G. J.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, G. R.

K. M. Baird, G. R. Hanes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 37,927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jolliffe, B. W.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, J. Phys. E. 9, 395 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, E. G.

Knight, D. J. E.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. E. 9, 898 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. J. E. Knight, Comm. l'Organisation du Colloque Internat. sur d'Electronique et la Mesure, Paris (1975), p. 42.

Layer, H. P.

Petersen, F. R.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, A. J. Wallard, J. Phys. E. 6, 647 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 10,475 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shotton, W. R. C. Rowley, National Physical Laboratory Report, QU-28 (1975).

W. R. C. Rowley, in Rep. 5th Session of the Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (OFFILIB, Paris, 1973).

W. R. C. Rowley, P. T. Woods, in Proceedings 4th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, London, 1972), p. 311.
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 410.
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, W. G.

Shotton, K. C.

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 410.
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shotton, W. R. C. Rowley, National Physical Laboratory Report, QU-28 (1975).

Shotton, K.C.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

Terrien, J.

J. Terrien, Rep. Prog. Phys. 39, 1067 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Terrien, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wallard, A. J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23,532 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, A. J. Wallard, J. Phys. E. 6, 647 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J. S.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Whetstone, J. R.

Wilson, D. C.

W. R. C. Rowley, D. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 10,475 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Woods, P. T.

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. E. 9, 898 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, J. Phys. E. 9, 395 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 410.
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, P. T. Woods, in Proceedings 4th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, London, 1972), p. 311.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 192 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23,532 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25,450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. R. C. Rowley, B. W. Jolliffe, K. C. Shotton, A. J. Wallard, P. T. Woods, J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 8,1 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E. (3)

D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. E. 9, 898 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, A. J. Wallard, J. Phys. E. 6, 647 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, J. Phys. E. 9, 395 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, B. W. Jolliffe, Nature 244504 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Nature 251,46 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

J. Terrien, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 4, 215 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. (1)

T. G. Blaney, C. C. Bradley, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, W. R. C. Rowley, K.C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proc. R. Soc. 355A, 61 (1977).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

K. M. Baird, G. R. Hanes, Rep. Prog. Phys. 37,927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Terrien, Rep. Prog. Phys. 39, 1067 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

W. R. C. Rowley, in Rep. 5th Session of the Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (OFFILIB, Paris, 1973).

K. C. Shotton, W. R. C. Rowley, National Physical Laboratory Report, QU-28 (1975).

D. J. E. Knight, Comm. l'Organisation du Colloque Internat. sur d'Electronique et la Mesure, Paris (1975), p. 42.

W. R. C. Rowley, P. T. Woods, in Proceedings 4th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, London, 1972), p. 311.
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, K. C. Shotton, P. T. Woods, Proceedings 5th International Conference on Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, J. Sanders, A. Wapstra, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 410.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Over-all view of laser wavelength comparator with light-tight covers removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The servocontrol systems for the wavelength comparator.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Uncertainties of 679-nm/633-nm Wavelength Ratio

Tables Icon

Table II Results Obtained from 679-nm/633-nm Wavelength Comparison

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

λ c / λ h = 1 ( 1 λ h / λ d ) .
λ d / λ h = 1.072 , 889 , 518 , 61 ± ( 3 × 10 11 ) .

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