Abstract

Specimens of Al–Fe 1–4 w/o, 2024 and 6061 Al have been surface melted with a pulsed Nd-glass laser. A TEM and SEM study showed that the dendrite spacings were from 2500 Å to 4000 Å which corresponds to a cooling rate of over 106 °C/sec. Melt depths obtained were in the range of 30–100 μm. No significant surface vaporization was observed at energy densities up to 440 J/cm2. Fracture surfaces of the commerical alloys demonstrated elongated porosity in the melt areas, probably due to internal hydrogen.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227, 362 (1963).
  3. H. S. Chen, C. E. Miller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1237 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.
  5. E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.
  6. H. S. Carslow, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959), p. 76.
  7. H. Jones, Mater, Sci. Eng. 5, 1 (1969/70).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).
  9. W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Brandt, in Aluminum, K. R. Van Horn, Ed. (ASM, New York, 1967), Vol 1, p. 26.

1972

W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

H. S. Chen, C. E. Miller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Jones, Mater, Sci. Eng. 5, 1 (1969/70).
[CrossRef]

1968

H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).

1963

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227, 362 (1963).

1960

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Banas, C. M.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.

Brandt, J. L.

J. L. Brandt, in Aluminum, K. R. Van Horn, Ed. (ASM, New York, 1967), Vol 1, p. 26.

Breinan, E. M.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.

Carslow, H. S.

H. S. Carslow, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959), p. 76.

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, C. E. Miller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Duwez, P.

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227, 362 (1963).

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, W. A.

W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
[CrossRef]

Gagliano, F. P.

W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, B. C.

H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).

Grant, H. J.

H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).

Greenwald, L.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.

Greenwald, L. E.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslow, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959), p. 76.

Jones, H.

H. Jones, Mater, Sci. Eng. 5, 1 (1969/70).
[CrossRef]

Kear, B. H.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.

Klement, W.

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
[CrossRef]

Matyja, H.

H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).

Miller, C. E.

H. S. Chen, C. E. Miller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Willens, R. H.

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227, 362 (1963).

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. A. Elliott, F. P. Gagliano, G. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, No. 1 (1July1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, W. Klement, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Inst. Met.

H. Matyja, B. C. Giessen, H. J. Grant, J. Inst. Met. 96, 30 (1968).

Mater, Sci. Eng.

H. Jones, Mater, Sci. Eng. 5, 1 (1969/70).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

H. S. Chen, C. E. Miller, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 41, 1237 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME

P. Duwez, R. H. Willens, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 227, 362 (1963).

Other

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. E. Greenwald, “Laser Glazing—A New Process for Production and Control of Rapidly Chilled Metallurgical Microstructures,” in Proceedings of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Western Laser Conference, Los Angeles, 30 Nov.–2 Dec. 1976.

E. M. Breinan, B. H. Kear, C. M. Banas, L. Greenwald, “Surface Treatment of Superalloys by Laser SKIN Melting,” in Proceedings—III International Conference on Superalloys, Seven Springs, Pa., 12–15 Sept. 1976.

H. S. Carslow, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959), p. 76.

J. L. Brandt, in Aluminum, K. R. Van Horn, Ed. (ASM, New York, 1967), Vol 1, p. 26.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plot of laser power-time profile for a Nd-glass laser used in melt threshold calculations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity profile along a diameter through the center of the spot for the Nd-glass laser used in threshold calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Macrograph of an Al–Fe 1 w/o sample. The irradiations were at 220, 277, 317, and 317 J/cm2 twice. The shading represents beam and absorbtivity homogeneities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microprobe photograph at 500× of an Al–Fe 1 w/o sample showing the change in the second phase at the melt–matrix interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical micrographs of Al–Fe 4 w/o irradiated at 317 J/cm2. (a) Cross section of melt area showing two regions observed in the melt area. Outer region had no etch response. (b) Enlarged area of the interface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM micrograph of 2024 Al irradiated once showing dendrite tips at surface imperfection.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical micrograph of the cross section of 2024 Al irradiated at 440 J/cm2. Oriented dendrites and a crack emanating from a pore are observed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface region of the melt in 6061 Al showing surface cracking and interfacial area.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Replica transmission micrograph at 116,250× showing elongated dendrites in an Al–Fe 4 w/o sample.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

SEM micrograph of the fracture surface of 2024 Al showing elongated voids and porosity at the interface.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Data Showing Irradiation Energy and Melt Depth for an Al–Fe 1 w/o Sample

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ T = 1 ( π ρ c k ) 1 / 2 0 τ f ( τ t ) d t ( t ) 1 / 2 .
F o = 0 τ f ( t ) d t ,
F o = α F i .
F i = 1 2 [ ( Δ T ) / α ] ( π ρ c k τ ) 1 / 2 .
f ( t ) = A [ 1 ( t / τ ) ] ;
F o = 1 2 A τ .
F i = 3 4 Δ T α ( π ρ c k τ ) 1 / 2 .
F o = 1 2 A τ ( 1 + R ) .
F i = ( 1 + R ) 4 [ 1 2 3 ( 1 R ) 1 / 2 ] 1 Δ T α ( π ρ c k τ ) 1 / 2 .

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