Abstract

A pulsed GaAs laser terrain profiler has been successfully tested and flown. Preliminary flight data indicate excellent resolution, with terrain features easily identifiable. Unique design features and typical flight results are given. The laser profiler is to be used as part of an airborne surveying package which will contain an inertial measurement unit and laser tracker to provide three-coordinate position information as well as base motion isolation and stabilization control for the profiler.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. E. Link, Analysis of the Ability of a Laser Profilometer System to evaluate Unprepared Landing Sites, prepared for Army Material Command (May1973), AD-763180.
  2. D. W. Coffee, V. J. Norris, Appl. Opt. 11, 1013 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. R. Cooke, Appl. Opt. 11, 277 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. F. Penny, Airborne Laser Profiling, Laser Applications Conference, conducted by Ian Clunies Ross Memorial Foundation (1973).
  5. T. P. Davis, M. A. Nelson, in 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (1975), p. 50.
  6. B. S. Goldstein, G. F. Dalrymple, Proc. IEEE 55, 181 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.
  8. H. Koechner, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-4, 81 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. B. Herden, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 152 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Hansen, W. A. Schmidt, Proc. IEEE 55, 216 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Mamon, D. Youmans, Appl. Opt. 16, 16 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).
  14. T. L. Lyon, Nonionizing Radiation Protection Special Study 42-079-76, Preliminary Evaluation of the Precision Laser Altimeter of the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System, U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. (1976).

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

W. B. Herden, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

L. E. Link, Analysis of the Ability of a Laser Profilometer System to evaluate Unprepared Landing Sites, prepared for Army Material Command (May1973), AD-763180.

1972 (2)

1968 (1)

H. Koechner, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-4, 81 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

J. P. Hansen, W. A. Schmidt, Proc. IEEE 55, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Goldstein, G. F. Dalrymple, Proc. IEEE 55, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Aras, E.

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

Coffee, D. W.

Cooke, C. R.

Dalrymple, G. F.

B. S. Goldstein, G. F. Dalrymple, Proc. IEEE 55, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. P.

T. P. Davis, M. A. Nelson, in 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (1975), p. 50.

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

Gammarino, R.

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

Garung, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

Goldstein, B. S.

B. S. Goldstein, G. F. Dalrymple, Proc. IEEE 55, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. P.

J. P. Hansen, W. A. Schmidt, Proc. IEEE 55, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hattery, W. V.

J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Herden, W. B.

W. B. Herden, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kleider, A.

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

Koechner, H.

H. Koechner, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-4, 81 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Link, L. E.

L. E. Link, Analysis of the Ability of a Laser Profilometer System to evaluate Unprepared Landing Sites, prepared for Army Material Command (May1973), AD-763180.

Lyon, T. L.

T. L. Lyon, Nonionizing Radiation Protection Special Study 42-079-76, Preliminary Evaluation of the Precision Laser Altimeter of the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System, U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. (1976).

Mamon, G.

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

Nelson, M. A.

T. P. Davis, M. A. Nelson, in 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (1975), p. 50.

Norris, V. J.

Penny, M. F.

M. F. Penny, Airborne Laser Profiling, Laser Applications Conference, conducted by Ian Clunies Ross Memorial Foundation (1973).

Schiel, E.

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

Schmidt, W. A.

J. P. Hansen, W. A. Schmidt, Proc. IEEE 55, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Selby, j. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

Sztankay, Z. G.

J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vanderwall, J.

J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Volz, J. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

Youmans, D.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Army Material Command (1)

L. E. Link, Analysis of the Ability of a Laser Profilometer System to evaluate Unprepared Landing Sites, prepared for Army Material Command (May1973), AD-763180.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Vanderwall, W. V. Hattery, Z. G. Sztankay, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 570 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

H. Koechner, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-4, 81 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

W. B. Herden, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 152 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. P. Hansen, W. A. Schmidt, Proc. IEEE 55, 216 (1967).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Goldstein, G. F. Dalrymple, Proc. IEEE 55, 181 (1967).
[CrossRef]

U.S. Army Electronics Command (1)

E. Schiel, R. Gammarino, A. Kleider, E. Aras, Injection Laser Terrain Following System (ILTFS), U.S. Army Electronics Command (1974), ECOM-4197.

Other (4)

M. F. Penny, Airborne Laser Profiling, Laser Applications Conference, conducted by Ian Clunies Ross Memorial Foundation (1973).

T. P. Davis, M. A. Nelson, in 1975 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications (1975), p. 50.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, j. E. A. Selby, J. E. Volz, J. S. Garung, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, AFCRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Papers, 411, 75 (1972).

T. L. Lyon, Nonionizing Radiation Protection Special Study 42-079-76, Preliminary Evaluation of the Precision Laser Altimeter of the Aerial Profiling of Terrain System, U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. (1976).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser ranging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hybridized avalanche transistor pulsed laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hybrid pulser and laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hybrid pulsed laser output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical received signals from targets at about 700 m.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal-to-noise ratio vs avalanche gain at range of 700 m.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Mechanization of pulsed laser discriminator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time walk using constant friction discriminator.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mechanization of last pulse detection.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Profiler flight test—airborne configuration.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Profile of deciduous forest—full foliage.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Profile of deciduous forest—no foliage.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Profile of cornfield.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Profile of farmhouse and trees.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Beam radiant exposure vs range.

Equations (5)

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P s = P t T t T r A r ρ π R 2 exp ( 2 σ R ) ; V s = Q g R L P s ,
P b = A r B opt T r H λ Ω r { ρ exp ( σ R ) + ¼ [ 1 exp ( σ R ) ] } 1 π ,
i n 2 = 2 q Δ f ( Q o P b + Q o P s + i d ) G 2.3 + i n a 2 ,
V n = i n R L 0.96 mV .
SNR V [ ( t r ) / ( σ t ) ] ,

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