Abstract

During the nights of 19, 20 May 1976 and 16, 17 September 1976, an 800-kg astronomical payload, developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center at Houston and the Astronomical Institute at Utrecht, was floating at 40-km altitude and recorded high-resolution uv spectra of stars. The spectral region of 200–340 nm was covered with a spectral resolution of 0.01 nm. The optical system consisted of a 40-cm diam telescope with 1-sec of arc pointing capabilities, an echelle spectrograph working in spectral orders 66 to 112 and a SEC-vidicon integrating detector. Due to the high spectral simultaneity gain of the system 53 complete spectra of thirty-three different stars, with spectral types between O9.5 and M2 and with visual magnitudes between 0 and 4.5, could be obtained during the two nights of observation. Ozone in the residual atmosphere above 40 km reduces the atmospheric transmission around 250 nm to approximately 0.1, but with suitable integration times also in this region stars can be studied spectroscopically from balloon altitudes.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Bottema, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 661 (1971).
  7. W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).
  9. M. Bottema, R. A. Woodruff, Appl. Opt. 10, 300 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. Zucchino, J. C. Lowrance, in Astronomical Use of Television Type Sensors, NASA publication SP-256 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1971), p. 27.
  11. T. M. Kamperman, in Image Processing Techniques in Astronomy, C. de Jager, Ed., Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib.54, 127 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Hoffleit, Ed. Catalogue of Bright Stars, (Yale University Observatory, 1964).
  13. V. Kaufman, B. Edlén, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  14. C. E. Moore, An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, National Bureau of Standards Circular 488 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1950), Sec. 2.
  15. P. Crane, in Astronomical Observations with Television-type Sensors, J. W. Glaspey, G. A. H. Walker, Eds. (Institute of Astronomy & Space Science, University of British Columbia, Canada, 1973), p. 391.
  16. K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

1976 (2)

Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
[Crossref]

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

1974 (2)

V. Kaufman, B. Edlén, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).

1972 (4)

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

Bottema, M.

M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. Bottema, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 661 (1971).

M. Bottema, R. A. Woodruff, Appl. Opt. 10, 300 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crane, P.

P. Crane, in Astronomical Observations with Television-type Sensors, J. W. Glaspey, G. A. H. Walker, Eds. (Institute of Astronomy & Space Science, University of British Columbia, Canada, 1973), p. 391.

de Jager, C.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

Eccher, J. A.

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Edlén, B.

V. Kaufman, B. Edlén, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825 (1974).
[Crossref]

Emming, J. G.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

Faraggiana, R.

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

Gibson, W. C.

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Giuli, R. T.

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

Guthals, D. C.

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

Hammerschlag, A.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Hoekstra, R.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Huguenin, D.

C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).

Jensen, J. W.

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kamperman, T.

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kamperman, T. M.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. M. Kamperman, in Image Processing Techniques in Astronomy, C. de Jager, Ed., Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib.54, 127 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kaufman, V.

V. Kaufman, B. Edlén, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
[Crossref]

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

Lamers, H.

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Lamers, H. J.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lehman, M.

C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).

Lowrance, J. C.

P. Zucchino, J. C. Lowrance, in Astronomical Use of Television Type Sensors, NASA publication SP-256 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1971), p. 27.

Modisette, J. L.

Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
[Crossref]

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, National Bureau of Standards Circular 488 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1950), Sec. 2.

Morgan, T. H.

Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
[Crossref]

Navach, C.

C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).

Ray, A. J.

M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
[Crossref]

Rydgren, A. E.

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

Stalio, R.

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

van der Hucht, K.

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

van der Hucht, K. A.

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wells, C. W.

M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
[Crossref]

Werner, W.

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Woodruff, R. A.

Zucchino, P.

P. Zucchino, J. C. Lowrance, in Astronomical Use of Television Type Sensors, NASA publication SP-256 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1971), p. 27.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

C. Navach, M. Lehman, D. Huguenin, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 361 (1973).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. (1)

K. A. van der Hucht, H. Lamers, R. Faraggiana, M. Hack, R. Stalio, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 25, 65 (1976).

Astrophys. J. (2)

Y. Kondo, R. T. Giuli, J. L. Modisette, A. E. Rydgren, Astrophys. J. 176, 153 (1972).
[Crossref]

Y. Kondo, T. H. Morgan, J. L. Modisette, Astrophys. J. 207, 167 (1976).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

C. de Jager, R. Hoekstra, K. A. van der Hucht, T. M. Kamperman, H. J. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, J. G. Emming, Astrophys. Space Sci. 26, 207 (1974).
[Crossref]

Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. (2)

M. Bottema, A. J. Ray, C. W. Wells, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 261 (1972).
[Crossref]

W. C. Gibson, D. C. Guthals, J. W. Jensen, J. A. Eccher, in Instrumentation in Astronomy, SPIE Proc. 28, 249 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Bottema, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 661 (1971).

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

V. Kaufman, B. Edlén, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 825 (1974).
[Crossref]

Nature, Phys. Sci. (1)

R. Hoekstra, K. van der Hucht, T. Kamperman, H. Lamers, A. Hammerschlag, W. Werner, Nature, Phys. Sci. 236, 121 (1972).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

P. Zucchino, J. C. Lowrance, in Astronomical Use of Television Type Sensors, NASA publication SP-256 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1971), p. 27.

T. M. Kamperman, in Image Processing Techniques in Astronomy, C. de Jager, Ed., Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib.54, 127 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. Hoffleit, Ed. Catalogue of Bright Stars, (Yale University Observatory, 1964).

C. E. Moore, An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table, National Bureau of Standards Circular 488 (Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1950), Sec. 2.

P. Crane, in Astronomical Observations with Television-type Sensors, J. W. Glaspey, G. A. H. Walker, Eds. (Institute of Astronomy & Space Science, University of British Columbia, Canada, 1973), p. 391.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

BUSS payload: (1) pointed section; (2) gondola; (3) azimuth shaft; (4) servo electronics and PCM encoder; (5) elevation shaft; (6) telescope; (7) coarse star tracker; (8) echelle spectrograph; (9) SEC vidicon container; (10) roll cage structure; (11) battery; (12) electronic systems; (13) ballast box; and (14) magnetometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BUSS optical system: (1) primary telescope mirror; (2) dichroic mirror; (3) off-axis paraboloidal collimator mirror; (4) echelle; (5) cross-dispersing prism; (6) camera system; and (7) detector unit. The XZ plane, mentioned in Sec. IV, is the plane of drawing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The formation of the echellegram on the detector sensitive area. The indicated wavelengths have the following sense: order 70 covers the wavelength range from 319 nm to 323 nm and so on.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Iron spectrum obtained by the spectrograph and detector with a hollow cathode light source. The spectrum shown is a part of spectral order 89. For each spectral element the presented detector signal was obtained by adding the signals from nine vertically neighboring picture elements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sensitivity curves for two different locations at the detector sensitive area. Curve (a) applies to scanline 500 at coordinate index 500, while curve (b) belongs to scanline 250 at coordinate index 500.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The spectrum of α Cmi. The spectrum shown here is a small part of spectral order 79 of one of the BUSS VIII observations. The signal was obtained from the digitized TV picture by adding for each spectral element nine vertically neighboring picture elements along the order.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Symbols Used in Text and Values of Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Dispersion Relation for Spectral Order 82 a

Tables Icon

Table III Survey of Stellar Observations gathered during BUSS VII and BUSS VIII Flights

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ λ = ( δ λ tel 2 + δ λ opt 2 + δ λ det 2 + δ λ tol 2 ) 1 / 2 .
δ λ tel = D δ ϕ λ l ( sin α + sin β ) .
δ λ det = ( λ δ x det ) / ( m 1 w ) .
f 2 = ( w m 1 cos β ) / ( sin α + sin β ) ,
( d λ ) / ( d x ) = λ / ( m 1 w )
λ = a + b x + c ( d x ) 3 + e ( x f ) 3

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