Abstract

In underwater photography, it was reported that clear photographs were obtained through water with large (10–15) optical distances even though the MTF rolls off at a few cycles per mrad. This paper presents an explanation of this apparent contradiction by showing that at a large optical distance where the total coherent intensity is negligibly small compared with the total incoherent intensity, it is still possible to form the Airy disk due to the coherent intensity. We present the condition under which this can take place and applied the results to an imaging system in still water and in water with particulate matter.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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