Abstract

Photon-counting techniques have been applied to a study of the intensity fluctuations in the image of an unresolved star at the Cassegrain focus of the 91-cm telescope of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Time-averaged temporal autocorrelation functions and moments of intensity have been computed. The results are discussed in terms of atmospheric turbulence and in relation to stellar speckle interferometry.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).
  2. A. Buffington et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 298 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 92–94.
  4. J. L. Bufton, Appl. Opt. 12, 1785 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. M. Prothero, Publ. Univ. Pa. 90, 27 (1961).
  6. J. Stock, G. Keller, in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), p. 151.
  7. J. C. Dainty, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975), p. 270.
  8. A. Labeyrie, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 14, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976).
  9. E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, R. R. E. Memo 2874, p. 9.
  11. M. E. Barnett, G. Parry, Opt. Commun. 21, 60 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Labeyrie, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Goodman, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975).
    [CrossRef]

1977 (2)

M. E. Barnett, G. Parry, Opt. Commun. 21, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Buffington et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 298 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. Labeyrie, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

1961 (1)

W. M. Prothero, Publ. Univ. Pa. 90, 27 (1961).

Barnett, M. E.

M. E. Barnett, G. Parry, Opt. Commun. 21, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Buffington, A.

Bufton, J. L.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975), p. 270.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, R. R. E. Memo 2874, p. 9.

E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 92–94.

Keller, G.

J. Stock, G. Keller, in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), p. 151.

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

A. Labeyrie, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 14, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976).

Parry, G.

M. E. Barnett, G. Parry, Opt. Commun. 21, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pike, E. R.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Prothero, W. M.

W. M. Prothero, Publ. Univ. Pa. 90, 27 (1961).

Pusey, P. N.

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, R. R. E. Memo 2874, p. 9.

Stock, J.

J. Stock, G. Keller, in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), p. 151.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

A. Labeyrie, Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. (1)

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, J. Phys. A: Math. Nucl. Gen. 8, 369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Jakeman, E. R. Pike, P. N. Pusey, Nature 263, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt. (1)

A. Labeyrie, Nouv. Rev. Opt. 5, 141 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. E. Barnett, G. Parry, Opt. Commun. 21, 60 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Univ. Pa. (1)

W. M. Prothero, Publ. Univ. Pa. 90, 27 (1961).

Other (6)

J. Stock, G. Keller, in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, Eds. (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), p. 151.

J. C. Dainty, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975), p. 270.

A. Labeyrie, in Progress in Optics, Vol. 14, E. Wolf, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976).

J. W. Goodman, in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 9, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer-Berlin, 1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Jakeman, P. N. Pusey, R. R. E. Memo 2874, p. 9.

E. Jakeman, in Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy, H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1973), pp. 92–94.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Short exposure (8-msec) image of an unresolved star (α Cen) formed by the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory, Sutherland. The filter was centered at 520 nm with a bandwidth at half height of 30 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the equipment used to record the data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation functions from a typical set of four experiments. The star was Capella at a zenith angle of 16°, and the experiments were performed between 23.00 and 23.20 on 4 December 1976. The detector aperture had an effective diameter of 0.125 sec of arc, and the filter was centered at 550 nm with a bandwidth at half height of 10 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation functions due to boiling calculated from the curves of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of a series of experiments to investigate the effect of the size of the detector aperture. The star was Vega at a zenith angle of 31°, and the experiments were performed between 00.20 and 00.35 on 29 July 1977. The filter was centered at 450 nm with a bandwidth at half height of 50 nm [1.22 (λ/D) = 0.124 sec of arc].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation functions of one experiment for a number of sampling times. The star was Capella at a zenith angle of 16°, and the experiment was performed at 23.00 on 4 December 1976. The detector aperture had an effective diameter of 0.125 sec of arc, and the filter was centered at 550 nm with a bandwidth at half height of 10 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results of a series of experiments to investigate the effect of filter bandwidth. The star was Vega at a zenith angle of 21°, and the experiments were performed between 23.30 and 23.50 on 28 July 1977. The detector aperture had an effective diameter of 0.25 sec of arc, and the filters were centered at 450 nm. Quoted bandwidths are full width at half height.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of a series of experiments to investigate the effect of filter wavelength. The star was Vega at a zenith angle of 26°, and the experiments were performed between 02.15 and 02.30 on 29 July 1977. The detector aperture had an effective diameter of 0.5 sec of arc, and the filters had half height bandwidths of 10 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Results of a series of experiments to investigate the effect of telescope defocus. Defocus is expressed as the wavefront aberration at the edge of the telescope aperture in units of wavelength. The star was Deneb at a zenith angle of 14°, and the experiments were performed between 01.20 and 01.40 on 29 July 1977. The detector aperture had an effective diameter of 0.5 sec of arc, and the filter was centered at 450 nm with a bandwidth at half height of 50 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Results of a Series of Experiments to Investigate the Effect of Zenith Angle

Tables Icon

Table II Averaged Normalized Moments of Detected Intensity Distribution of Six Experiments

Tables Icon

Table III Averaged Normalized Moments of Intensity Distribution of the Same Six Experiments Quoted in Table II after the Long Time Scale Fluctuations in the Data were Reduced by Dividing by a Running Mean Taken over Periods of 64 msec

Equations (4)

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C ( τ , T ) = I ( t , T ) I ( t + τ , T ) I ( t , T ) 2 = n ( t , T ) n ( t + τ , T ) n ( t , T ) 2 τ 0 ,
I m ( t , T ) I ( t , T ) m = n ( t , T ) · [ n ( t , T ) 1 ] [ n ( t , T ) m + 1 ] n ( t , T ) m ;
C B ( τ 1 / e B , T ) 1 = 1 / e [ C B ( 0 , T ) 1 ] ,
P ( I ) = M M I M I M 1 Γ ( M ) exp ( M I I ) ,

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