Abstract

A theoretical study has been made of the problem of deducing tropospheric aerosol mass concentrations from lidar observations at 1.06 μm. Brief results of calculations at other wavelengths are also presented. Experimentally measured aerosol distributions have been used and also simulated by a model, in which log-normal functions are fitted to individual distribution modes. The errors contained in this simple model are shown to be much less than the variations observed in backscattering cross sections. The problem of determination of the accumulation mode concentration, for a pollution aerosol, is analyzed in some detail. Calculations have also been made of the effects of humidity on backscattering cross sections and the results compared with experimental measurements.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. T. J. Tuomi, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 48, 159 (1974).
  4. T. J. Tuomi, J. Aerosol Sci. 7, 463 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).
  6. D. Deirmendjean, in Electromagnetic Scattering, M. Kerker, Ed. (MacMillan, New York, 1963).
  7. K. T. Whitby, On the Multi-model Nature of Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution, presented at the 8th International Conference on Nucleation, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., 28 September 1973. University of Minnesota, Mechanical Engineering Department, Particle Technology Laboratory Pub. No. 218.
  8. G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier-North Holland, New York, 1977).
  10. G. Hänel, Adv. Geophys. 19, 73 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Hänel, K. Bullrich, Physical Properties of Four Types of Tropospheric Aerosols, Prepared for the Radiation Commission for Intercomparison Studies (1977).
  12. K. Bullrich, G. Hänel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  13. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  14. R. A. McClatchy, J. E. A. Selby, AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 460 (1974).
  15. J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. L. Trusty, T. H. Cosden, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  18. R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.
  19. S. Kadowski, Atmos. Envon. 10, 39 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. J. Mainwaring, S. Harsha, Atmos. Envon. 10, 57 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. N. Kelkar, P. V. Joshi, Atmos. Envon. 11, 531 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. G. Jennings, R. K. Ellison, Atmos. Envon. 11, 361 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, B. H. Stockton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  24. A. J. Alkezweeny, N. S. Laulainen, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  25. V. Derr, NOAA-ERL; private communication.
  26. R. Reiter, W. Cornuth, M. Littfass, Remote Aerosol Sensing with an Absolute Calibrated Double Frequency Lidar, AGARD Conference Proceedings 183 on Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, 27–31 October 1975. (Neuilly sur Seine, France: AGARD 1976.)
  27. C. Werner, G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Simultaneous Observations of the Tropospheric Aerosol using Lidar and a Solar Radiometer, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Denver, Colo., 10–14 April 1978.
  28. J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, Atmospheric Particulate Properties Inferred from Lidar and Solar Radiometer Observations Compared with Simultaneous In Situ Aircraft Measurements: A Case Study, submitted for publication to J. Appl. Meteorol.1977.
  29. A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Appl. Opt. 11, 2886 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

D. N. Kelkar, P. V. Joshi, Atmos. Envon. 11, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Jennings, R. K. Ellison, Atmos. Envon. 11, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (5)

T. J. Tuomi, J. Aerosol Sci. 7, 463 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hänel, Adv. Geophys. 19, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Kadowski, Atmos. Envon. 10, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mainwaring, S. Harsha, Atmos. Envon. 10, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Tuomi, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 48, 159 (1974).

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

Ahlquist, N. C.

Alkezweeny, A. J.

A. J. Alkezweeny, N. S. Laulainen, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Appel, B. R.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, M. B.

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

Bullrich, K.

G. Hänel, K. Bullrich, Physical Properties of Four Types of Tropospheric Aerosols, Prepared for the Radiation Commission for Intercomparison Studies (1977).

K. Bullrich, G. Hänel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Byrne, D. M.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, Atmospheric Particulate Properties Inferred from Lidar and Solar Radiometer Observations Compared with Simultaneous In Situ Aircraft Measurements: A Case Study, submitted for publication to J. Appl. Meteorol.1977.

Charlson, R. J.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Appl. Opt. 11, 2886 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

Clark, W. E.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cornuth, W.

R. Reiter, W. Cornuth, M. Littfass, Remote Aerosol Sensing with an Absolute Calibrated Double Frequency Lidar, AGARD Conference Proceedings 183 on Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, 27–31 October 1975. (Neuilly sur Seine, France: AGARD 1976.)

Cosden, T. H.

G. L. Trusty, T. H. Cosden, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Covert, D. S.

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

Crownfield, F. R.

Deirmendjean, D.

D. Deirmendjean, in Electromagnetic Scattering, M. Kerker, Ed. (MacMillan, New York, 1963).

DeLuisi, J. J.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V.

V. Derr, NOAA-ERL; private communication.

Ellison, R. K.

S. G. Jennings, R. K. Ellison, Atmos. Envon. 11, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fegley, R. W.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Friedlander, S. K.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furekawa, P. M.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, D. A.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, B. H. Stockton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Hänel, G.

G. Hänel, Adv. Geophys. 19, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hänel, K. Bullrich, Physical Properties of Four Types of Tropospheric Aerosols, Prepared for the Radiation Commission for Intercomparison Studies (1977).

K. Bullrich, G. Hänel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Harsha, S.

S. J. Mainwaring, S. Harsha, Atmos. Envon. 10, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hidy, G. M.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchinson, D. H.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jennings, S. G.

S. G. Jennings, R. K. Ellison, Atmos. Envon. 11, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, P. V.

D. N. Kelkar, P. V. Joshi, Atmos. Envon. 11, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).

Kadowski, S.

S. Kadowski, Atmos. Envon. 10, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kelkar, D. N.

D. N. Kelkar, P. V. Joshi, Atmos. Envon. 11, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kent, G. S.

C. Werner, G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Simultaneous Observations of the Tropospheric Aerosol using Lidar and a Solar Radiometer, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Denver, Colo., 10–14 April 1978.

Köpp, F.

C. Werner, G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Simultaneous Observations of the Tropospheric Aerosol using Lidar and a Solar Radiometer, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Denver, Colo., 10–14 April 1978.

Laulainen, N. S.

A. J. Alkezweeny, N. S. Laulainen, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Lawrence, J. D.

Littfass, M.

R. Reiter, W. Cornuth, M. Littfass, Remote Aerosol Sensing with an Absolute Calibrated Double Frequency Lidar, AGARD Conference Proceedings 183 on Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, 27–31 October 1975. (Neuilly sur Seine, France: AGARD 1976.)

Long, R. K.

Mainwaring, S. J.

S. J. Mainwaring, S. Harsha, Atmos. Envon. 10, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Marple, V. A.

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

McClatchy, R. A.

R. A. McClatchy, J. E. A. Selby, AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 460 (1974).

McCormick, M. P.

Patterson, E. M.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, B. H. Stockton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Porch, W. M.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rabinoff, R. A.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, Atmospheric Particulate Properties Inferred from Lidar and Solar Radiometer Observations Compared with Simultaneous In Situ Aircraft Measurements: A Case Study, submitted for publication to J. Appl. Meteorol.1977.

Reiter, R.

R. Reiter, W. Cornuth, M. Littfass, Remote Aerosol Sensing with an Absolute Calibrated Double Frequency Lidar, AGARD Conference Proceedings 183 on Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, 27–31 October 1975. (Neuilly sur Seine, France: AGARD 1976.)

Rensch, D. B.

Schuster, B. G.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchy, J. E. A. Selby, AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 460 (1974).

Smith, T. B.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinhirne, J. D.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, Atmospheric Particulate Properties Inferred from Lidar and Solar Radiometer Observations Compared with Simultaneous In Situ Aircraft Measurements: A Case Study, submitted for publication to J. Appl. Meteorol.1977.

Stockton, B. H.

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, B. H. Stockton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Suder, J.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trusty, G. L.

G. L. Trusty, T. H. Cosden, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Tuomi, T. J.

T. J. Tuomi, J. Aerosol Sci. 7, 463 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Tuomi, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 48, 159 (1974).

Twitty, J. T.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier-North Holland, New York, 1977).

Vanderpol, A. H.

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

Waggoner, A. P.

A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, R. J. Charlson, Appl. Opt. 11, 2886 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

Weinmann, J. A.

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

C. Werner, G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Simultaneous Observations of the Tropospheric Aerosol using Lidar and a Solar Radiometer, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Denver, Colo., 10–14 April 1978.

Weselowski, J. J.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitby, K. T.

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, On the Multi-model Nature of Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution, presented at the 8th International Conference on Nucleation, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., 28 September 1973. University of Minnesota, Mechanical Engineering Department, Particle Technology Laboratory Pub. No. 218.

Willeke, K.

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Geophys. (1)

G. Hänel, Adv. Geophys. 19, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Envon. (5)

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, Atmos. Envon. 8, 609 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Kadowski, Atmos. Envon. 10, 39 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mainwaring, S. Harsha, Atmos. Envon. 10, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Kelkar, P. V. Joshi, Atmos. Envon. 11, 531 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Jennings, R. K. Ellison, Atmos. Envon. 11, 361 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

T. J. Tuomi, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 48, 159 (1974).

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

T. J. Tuomi, J. Aerosol Sci. 7, 463 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

G. M. Hidy, B. R. Appel, R. J. Charlson, W. E. Clark, S. K. Friedlander, D. H. Hutchinson, T. B. Smith, J. Suder, J. J. Weselowski, K. T. Whitby, J. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc. 25, 1106 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

J. J. DeLuisi, P. M. Furekawa, D. A. Gillette, B. G. Schuster, R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, R. W. Fegley, B. M. Herman, R. A. Rabinoff, J. T. Twitty, J. A. Weinmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 441 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

S. Twomey, Atmospheric Aerosols (Elsevier-North Holland, New York, 1977).

G. L. Trusty, T. H. Cosden, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

R. J. Charlson, A. H. Vanderpol, A. P. Waggoner, D. S. Covert, M. B. Baker, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper MC6.

C. E. Junge, Air Chemistry and Radioactivity (Academic, New York, 1963).

D. Deirmendjean, in Electromagnetic Scattering, M. Kerker, Ed. (MacMillan, New York, 1963).

K. T. Whitby, On the Multi-model Nature of Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution, presented at the 8th International Conference on Nucleation, Leningrad, U.S.S.R., 28 September 1973. University of Minnesota, Mechanical Engineering Department, Particle Technology Laboratory Pub. No. 218.

G. Hänel, K. Bullrich, Physical Properties of Four Types of Tropospheric Aerosols, Prepared for the Radiation Commission for Intercomparison Studies (1977).

K. Bullrich, G. Hänel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

R. A. McClatchy, J. E. A. Selby, AFCRL Environmental Research Paper 460 (1974).

E. M. Patterson, D. A. Gillette, B. H. Stockton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

A. J. Alkezweeny, N. S. Laulainen, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Atmospheric Aerosols (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

V. Derr, NOAA-ERL; private communication.

R. Reiter, W. Cornuth, M. Littfass, Remote Aerosol Sensing with an Absolute Calibrated Double Frequency Lidar, AGARD Conference Proceedings 183 on Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere, Lyngby, Denmark, 27–31 October 1975. (Neuilly sur Seine, France: AGARD 1976.)

C. Werner, G. S. Kent, F. Köpp, Simultaneous Observations of the Tropospheric Aerosol using Lidar and a Solar Radiometer, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instrumentation, Denver, Colo., 10–14 April 1978.

J. A. Reagan, J. D. Spinhirne, D. M. Byrne, Atmospheric Particulate Properties Inferred from Lidar and Solar Radiometer Observations Compared with Simultaneous In Situ Aircraft Measurements: A Case Study, submitted for publication to J. Appl. Meteorol.1977.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized volume distributions for the four tropospheric aerosol models of Hänel and Bullrich: model A: maritime aerosol; model B: maritime aerosol mixed with dust from a desert region; model C: pollution aerosol; model D: continental clean air aerosol. Also shown is the division, proposed by Whitby, into three constituent particle modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mie backscattering cross sections, per unit particle volume, at a wavelength of 1.06 μm and as a function of particle radius. (1) The effect of varying the real part of the refractive index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mie backscattering cross sections, per unit particle volume, at a wavelength of 1.06 μm and as a function of particle radius. (2) The effect of varying the imaginary part of the refractive index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mie backscattering cross sections, per unit particle volume, at a wavelength of 1.06 μm and as a function of particle radius. (3) For the refractive indices of Hänel and Bullrich’s models: model A: n = 1.540–0.036j; model B: n = 1.550–0.012j; model C: n = 1.530–0.070j; model D: n = 1.490–0.020j.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mie backscattering cross sections, per unit particle volume, and as a function of particle radius for a continental clean air aerosol and a range of wavelengths from 0.3472 μm to 10.6 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated backscattering cross sections, per unit particle volume, for a continental clean air aerosol, a wavelength of 1.06 μm, and a range of refractive indices: (a) for a refractive index of X − 0.02j; (b) for a refractive index of 1.490 − Xj. The normal refractive index for this model is 1.490–0.02j.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of the calculated values of the backscattering cross section, per unit particle volume, at a wavelength of 1.06 μm for forty-three measured particle distributions and models. They are classified according to the models of Hänel and Bullrich, the values for which are indicated by circles on the histogram.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diagram illustrating the fitting of two log normal volume distribution functions to a measured aerosol volume distribution (1969 Los Angeles grand average—Whitby, 1973).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Histogram showing the position and frequency of the mean radii of the log-normal volume distributions, which have been fitted to the set of forty-three measured particle distributions and models. They have been classified as in Fig. 7. Also shown is the suggested range of particle sizes for the accumulation and coarse particle modes. (b) and (c) Histograms of the fraction of the total particle volume occurring in the accumulation mode. (b) For all the data shown in (a). (c) Only for data in which the minimum radius measured was not greater than 0.1 μm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mie backscattering cross sections per unit particle volume for log-normal volume distributions whose mean particle radii vary from 0.01 μm to 31.6 μm. The wavelength used is 1.06 μm, and curves are shown for the refractive indices corresponding to the four models of Hänel and Bullrich (A,B,C,D) and also for a value of 1.49–0.01 (X), corresponding to soil-derived aerosols.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Histogram showing the distribution of errors resulting from calculating the backscattering cross section from a bimodal log-normal model rather than from the actual particle distribution. The data are classified as in Fig. 7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Histogram showing the fraction of the total backscattering at a wavelength of 1.06 μm that comes from the accumulation mode for twenty urban aerosol distributions. (a) Using a refractive index of 1.530–0.070j for all aerosols. (b) Using a refractive index of 1.530–0.07j for the accumulation mode aerosols and 1.490–0.020j for the coarse particle mode aerosols. The values for Hänel and Bullrich’s pollution model are indicated by circles.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Backscattering ratios as a function of mean particle radius for a range of log-normal volume distributions and various conditions. (a) The ratio for wavelengths of 0.6943 μm and 1.060 μm with three different aerosol types. (b) The ratios for a continental clean aerosol model and the wavelengths shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

The effect of changing humidity on backscattering cross sections. (a) For a wavelength of 1.060 μm and a continental clean air aerosol model. (b) Backscattering ratio for a continental clean air aerosol model and wavelengths of 0.6943 μm and 1.060 μm. All curves are normalized to unity for zero humidity.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Experimental lidar scattering ratios for wavelengths of 0.6943 μm and 1.06 μm observed at Oberpfaffenhofen 21 July 1977, 09.45–11.00 a.m. (b) Relative humidity measured from Munich Airport, 21 July 1977, 12.00 midday. (c) Scattering ratio vs relative humidity. The scattering ratios in (a) and (c) are normalized to the value at a height of 300 m.

Tables (3)

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Table I Properties of Hänel and Bullrich’s Tropospheric Aerosol Models

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Table II Backscattering Cross Section per Unit Particle Volume for Two Sets of Measured Aerosol Distributions

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Table III Backscattering and Extinction Coefficients for Hänel and Bullrich’s Aerosols Models

Equations (4)

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d N ( r ) / d r = N 0 ( 2 π ) 1 / 2 r ln ( σ g ) exp { 1 2 [ ln ( r / r m ) ln ( σ g ) ] 2 } ,
β ( r , λ , 180 ° ) = λ 2 i 1 ( r , λ , 180 ° ) 4 π 2 V ,
β D ( λ , 180 ° ) = r = 10 8 m r = 3.16 × 10 5 m λ 2 i 1 ( r , λ , 180 ° ) 4 π 2 ( Δ V V ) r ,
β M = a 1 β L 1 + a 2 β L 2 ,

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