Abstract

Index of refraction profiles of optical fibers are obtained by a new interference technique closely related to Mach-Zehnder microscope interferometry. Data are obtained from specially prepared samples using a conventional reflected light microscope. Excellent agreement is obtained with the results using the Mach-Zehnder method but at a considerable reduction in the cost and complexity of instrumentation.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, H. Yoshikiyo, Appl. Opt. 14, 814 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Eickhoff, E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Stone, H. E. Earl, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, Appl. Opt. 15, 483 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).
  8. W. E. Martin, Appl. Opt. 13, 2112 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Saunders, W. B. Gardner, Appl. Opt. 16, 2368 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. A. Burrus, R. D. Standley, Appl. Opt. 13, 2365 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Saunders, BTL; private communication.
  14. H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).
  15. J. Stone, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 885 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Opt. 14, 151 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  17. W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).
  18. H. M. Presby, BTL; private communication.

1977 (1)

1976 (5)

J. Stone, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 885 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, H. E. Earl, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, Appl. Opt. 15, 483 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (6)

M. Ikeda, M. Tateda, H. Yoshikiyo, Appl. Opt. 14, 814 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Eickhoff, E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Opt. 14, 151 (1975).
[PubMed]

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

1974 (3)

C. A. Burrus, R. D. Standley, Appl. Opt. 13, 2365 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

W. E. Martin, Appl. Opt. 13, 2112 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arnaud, J. A.

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).

Burrus, C. A.

Derosier, R. M.

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).

J. Stone, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 885 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Earl, H. E.

J. Stone, H. E. Earl, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, W.

W. Eickhoff, E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, M.

M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
[CrossRef]

French, W. G.

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

Gardner, W. B.

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R. S.

M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, M.

Kaminow, I. P.

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Keck, D. B.

Li, T.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

Marcatili, E. A. J.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. E.

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, P. B.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

Olshansky, R.

Payne, D. N.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby, BTL; private communication.

Saunders, M. J.

Sladen, F. M. E.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

C. A. Burrus, R. D. Standley, Appl. Opt. 13, 2365 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 885 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, H. E. Earl, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, Appl. Opt. 14, 151 (1975).
[PubMed]

Tasker, G. W.

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

Tateda, M.

Weidel, E.

W. Eickhoff, E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikiyo, H.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. E. Marhic, R. S. Ho, M. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 574 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 255 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

J. A. Arnaud, R. M. Derosier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 1489 (1976).

W. G. French, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, G. W. Tasker, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 951 (1974).

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1681 (1975).

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. Eickhoff, E. Weidel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 109 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Stone, H. E. Earl, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 459 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, T. Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Stone, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 885 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. M. Presby, BTL; private communication.

M. J. Saunders, BTL; private communication.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Leitz Mach-Zehnder interference microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample arrangement to observe circular fringes in an ordinary microscope with monochromatic light; (a) transmitted light, and (b) reflected light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample arrangement used to observe tilted fringes in an ordinary reflected light microscope with monochromatic light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refinement in the sample arrangement to provide normal incidence of microscope light at lower wedge of mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Interferogram of a fiber obtained with the arrangement of Fig. 3. (b) The solid line denotes the fiber profile; the dashed line denotes the profile of another sample of the same fiber obtained with a Leitz Mach-Zehnder microscope.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of interferograms obtained with other types of optical fibers with the sample arrangement as in Fig. 3.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t / λ [ n ( r 2 ) n ( r 1 ) ] = 1 ,
2 / λ { [ n ( r 2 ) n ( r 1 ) ] t ± ( r 2 r 1 ) n 0 tan θ } = 1.
q = ( 2 t Δ n ) / λ ,

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