Abstract

A complete spectrometer for recording high resolution ir absorption spectra with diode lasers is presented. The optical assembly has been adapted to the characteristics of diode lasers but can be used as well with other laser sources. With a double-beam technique variations in laser power are eliminated. Problems of optical alignment and electronic signal detection are discussed, and representative spectra are presented.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. D. Hinkley, K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, in Laser Spectroscopy with Tunable Lasers, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 2, H. Walther, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976).
  2. E. D. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Melngailis, A. Mooradian, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy (S. F. Jacobs, X. Sargent, M. D. Scully, X. Scott, Eds.) Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975).
  4. S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Brannon, Appl. Opt. 15, 1119 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1976

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Brannon, Appl. Opt. 15, 1119 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. D. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Andrist, M.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Besson, J. M.

J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Blum, F. A.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hinkley, K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, in Laser Spectroscopy with Tunable Lasers, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 2, H. Walther, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

Brannon, P. J.

Calawa, A. R.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Forster, M.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Freed, C.

E. D. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fringeli, U. P.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Groves, S. H.

S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Günthard, H. H.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harman, T. C.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

E. D. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hinkley, K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, in Laser Spectroscopy with Tunable Lasers, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 2, H. Walther, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

Loth, K.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Melngailis, I.

I. Melngailis, A. Mooradian, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy (S. F. Jacobs, X. Sargent, M. D. Scully, X. Scott, Eds.) Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975).

Mooradian, A.

I. Melngailis, A. Mooradian, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy (S. F. Jacobs, X. Sargent, M. D. Scully, X. Scott, Eds.) Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975).

Nill, K.

S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nill, K. W.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hinkley, K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, in Laser Spectroscopy with Tunable Lasers, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 2, H. Walther, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

Paul, W.

J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, A. J.

S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. H. Groves, K. Nill, A. J. Strauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 331 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Calawa, T. C. Harman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 132 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

M. Forster, K. Loth, M. Andrist, U. P. Fringeli, H. H. Günthard, Chem. Phys. 17, 59 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

J. M. Besson, W. Paul, A. R. Calawa, Phys. Rev. 173, 699 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. D. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Melngailis, A. Mooradian, in Laser Applications to Optics and Spectroscopy (S. F. Jacobs, X. Sargent, M. D. Scully, X. Scott, Eds.) Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1975).

E. D. Hinkley, K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, in Laser Spectroscopy with Tunable Lasers, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 2, H. Walther, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical assembly (approximately to scale): He, He pressure lines; T, laser temperature control (Lakeshore DTC-500); C, cold head (CTI model 20/70 Cryodyne); DL, diode laser; Ch, chopper; Mo, monochromator slits (Spex 0.75-m, f/7 vacuum monochromator); G, gas cell (10 cm); E, etalon; RM, rotating mirror (2 sectors of 90°); S, sample beam focus; R, reference beam focus; D, detector; L1,L4, Ge lenses, f/1, AR coated; L2,L3, ZnS (Irtran 2) lenses, f = 80 mm; M1-M4 spherical mirrors (r = 270 mm); O, opening for alignment with He–Ne laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of detection and control circuit: LCM, laser power supply (Laser Analytics); Ch, chopper; Mono, monochromator; RM, rotating mirror; Ref1, Ref2 reference units; Det, HgCdTe detector (Hughes SBRC); Pre, preamplifier; Amp, amplifier; Filter, 300-Hz high pass filter; Switch, sample hold switch (see Fig. 3); Rec, X-Y-recorder; ADC, analog digital converter and data serializer; LSCM, laser spectrometer control module.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample and hold switch; principle of operation: —, signal connections; - - -, control connections; OS, one shot (see also Fig. 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal and switching waveforms; schematic (circled numbers refer to Figs. 2 and 3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CH4 gas spectrum, 10-cm cell length, 0.8-Torr pressure, room temperature. (A) Double-beam spectrum; (B) transmitted laser intensity; (C) transmitted laser intensity through etalon. Diode laser temperature: 37 K; laser current sweep rate: 0.5 mA/sec; etalon: 0.05-cm−1 fringe spacing.

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