Abstract

Remote atmospheric measurements of SO2 and CH4 were performed using a differential absorption lidar with a continuously tunable LiNbO3 parametric oscillator and amplifier source in the 1.4–4.0-μm region. A comparison of injected gas concentration in a remotely located sample chamber showed excellent agreement with a SO2 detection sensitivity of 0.9 ppm-km. An ambient level measurement of methane at the 1.66-μm overtone transition gave 3.9 ± 0.7 ppm Performance predictions indicate an order of magnitude gain in sensitivity is possible with recently demonstrated tunable source improvements. The wide tuning range capability allows the measurement of numerous other pollutant molecules in the 1.4–4.0-μm region.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, Proc. IEEE 59, 1644 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. E. Derr, Ed. “Remote Sensing of the Troposphere,” NOAA C55.602, T75 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1972).
  3. R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. D. Hinkley, Ed. Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer, Berlin, 1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. L. Byer, E. R. Murray, “Remote Monitoring Techniques,” in Handbook of Air Pollution Analysis, by Roger Perry, R. J. Young, Eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1977), pp. 406–449.
  6. E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res.June (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. 2, 163 (1978).
  12. R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric Oscillation and Mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–133.
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Stitch, E. S. Woodbury, Eds. “Advances in Laser Engineering,” in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (1977), Vol. 122, pp. 88–94.
  15. R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Amplification,” to be published.
  17. The parametric oscillator control software was developed by Richard L. Herbst.
  18. S. Warshaw, “A Remote Laser Radar Measurement System,” Stanford U. Thesis (November1977).
  19. K. M. Haught, J. A. Dowling, Opt. Lett. 1, 121 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 278.
  21. A. Abey, D. M. Dennison, Phys. Rev. 43, 716 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Barker, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. 45, 1 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Cooney, Appl. Opt. 14, 270 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. F. Herget, private communication.
  25. E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. K. Poultney, M. K. Brumfield, J. H. Switer, Appl. Opt. 16, 3180 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. S. Pine, P. F. Moulton, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 15 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, R. A. Baumgartner, “Linewidth and Threshold Studies of a LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator,” to be published.
  29. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “The Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Laser Source,” to be published in Laser Focus (July1978).

1978 (2)

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res.June (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. 2, 163 (1978).

1977 (4)

R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Pine, P. F. Moulton, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 15 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Haught, J. A. Dowling, Opt. Lett. 1, 121 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Poultney, M. K. Brumfield, J. H. Switer, Appl. Opt. 16, 3180 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Cooney, Appl. Opt. 14, 270 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, Proc. IEEE 59, 1644 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

B. Barker, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. 45, 1 (1945).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

A. Abey, D. M. Dennison, Phys. Rev. 43, 716 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Abey, A.

A. Abey, D. M. Dennison, Phys. Rev. 43, 716 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Barker, B.

B. Barker, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. 45, 1 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Baumgartner, R. A.

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. 2, 163 (1978).

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Amplification,” to be published.

S. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, R. A. Baumgartner, “Linewidth and Threshold Studies of a LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator,” to be published.

Brosnan, S.

S. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, R. A. Baumgartner, “Linewidth and Threshold Studies of a LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator,” to be published.

Brumfield, M. K.

Byer, R. L.

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. 2, 163 (1978).

R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, Proc. IEEE 59, 1644 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Amplification,” to be published.

R. L. Byer, E. R. Murray, “Remote Monitoring Techniques,” in Handbook of Air Pollution Analysis, by Roger Perry, R. J. Young, Eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1977), pp. 406–449.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “The Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Laser Source,” to be published in Laser Focus (July1978).

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric Oscillation and Mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–133.
[CrossRef]

S. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, R. A. Baumgartner, “Linewidth and Threshold Studies of a LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator,” to be published.

Cooney, J.

Dennison, D. M.

A. Abey, D. M. Dennison, Phys. Rev. 43, 716 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. A.

Gailor, N. M.

E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Garbuny, M.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haught, K. M.

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, T.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “The Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Laser Source,” to be published in Laser Focus (July1978).

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric Oscillation and Mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–133.
[CrossRef]

Herget, W. F.

W. F. Herget, private communication.

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 278.

Kildal, H.

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, Proc. IEEE 59, 1644 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Komine, H.

R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res.June (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

A. S. Pine, P. F. Moulton, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 15 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, E. R. Murray, “Remote Monitoring Techniques,” in Handbook of Air Pollution Analysis, by Roger Perry, R. J. Young, Eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1977), pp. 406–449.

Pine, A. S.

A. S. Pine, P. F. Moulton, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 15 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Plyler, E. K.

E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Poultney, S. K.

Shumate, M. S.

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res.June (1978).
[CrossRef]

Switer, J. H.

van der Laan, J. E.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warshaw, S.

S. Warshaw, “A Remote Laser Radar Measurement System,” Stanford U. Thesis (November1977).

Wiggins, T. A.

E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

B. Barker, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. 45, 1 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. B. Grant, R. D. Hake, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3019 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, “Tropospheric Ozone Distribution Measured with an Airborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res.June (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

A. S. Pine, P. F. Moulton, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 15 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

E. K. Plyler, N. M. Gailor, T. A. Wiggins, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 48, 221 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Opt. (1)

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. 2, 163 (1978).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. L. Herbst, H. Komine, R. L. Byer, Opt. Commun. 21, 5 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

A. Abey, D. M. Dennison, Phys. Rev. 43, 716 (1933).
[CrossRef]

B. Barker, C. Wu, Phys. Rev. 45, 1 (1945).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Kildal, R. L. Byer, Proc. IEEE 59, 1644 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

V. E. Derr, Ed. “Remote Sensing of the Troposphere,” NOAA C55.602, T75 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1972).

E. D. Hinkley, Ed. Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere (Springer, Berlin, 1976).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, E. R. Murray, “Remote Monitoring Techniques,” in Handbook of Air Pollution Analysis, by Roger Perry, R. J. Young, Eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1977), pp. 406–449.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric Oscillation and Mixing,” in Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1977), pp. 81–133.
[CrossRef]

M. L. Stitch, E. S. Woodbury, Eds. “Advances in Laser Engineering,” in Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (1977), Vol. 122, pp. 88–94.

W. F. Herget, private communication.

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, “Optical Parametric Amplification,” to be published.

The parametric oscillator control software was developed by Richard L. Herbst.

S. Warshaw, “A Remote Laser Radar Measurement System,” Stanford U. Thesis (November1977).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2: Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1945), p. 278.

S. Brosnan, R. L. Byer, R. A. Baumgartner, “Linewidth and Threshold Studies of a LiNbO3 Optical Parametric Oscillator,” to be published.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “The Unstable Resonator Nd:YAG Laser Source,” to be published in Laser Focus (July1978).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of tunable source for lidar.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The 40-cm diam receiving telescope and the sample chamber on the laboratory roof.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Return data acquisition system for lidar: (a) high speed digitizing equipment for range resolved data; (b) analog processing used for long path absorption data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of a lidar return showing both Mie backscatter and topographic returns with λt = 1.06 μm and Et = 45 mJ/pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atmospheric transmission scans over a 1.5-km pathlength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scans of methane near 1.66 μm: (a) laboratory spectrum of 2ν3 resonance; (b) atmospheric scan of ambient CH4 level over Palo Alto, California, business district.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Examples of lidar frequency scans through a remotely located sample chamber for two values of SO2 concentration with normalization scans.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A comparison of lidar measurements with in situ gas concentration for the remotely located sample chamber.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental Source and Detection Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Observed and Projected Measurement Sensitivities for ir Lidar

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V 1 = E t R f t A R 2 ρ π exp { 2 0 R [ α a + c ( r ) κ ( λ ) ] d r } ;
V 2 = E t R f t A R 2 c τ 2 β ( R ) exp { 2 0 R [ α a + c ( r ) κ ( λ ) ] d r } ,
ln ( V 1 off V 1 on ) = 2 0 R c ( r ) [ κ ( λ on ) κ ( λ off ) ] ;
d d r [ ln ( V 2 off V 2 on ) ] = 2 c ( r ) [ κ ( λ on ) κ ( λ off ) ] ,
P N = P rec . poll . off P rec . poll . on ( P rec . amb . off P rec . amb . on ) ,
c = 1 2 ( κ on κ off ) l ln ( T off T on )

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