Abstract

Steady state luminescence radiance expressions for two-level and three-level molecular systems are derived in terms of transition probabilities, source irradiance, emission pathlength, absorption band halfwidth, total molecule concentration, frequencies of the transitions, statistical weights after transitions, and nonradiational activation and deactivation rate constants. Limiting radiance expressions are given for both low (conventional sources) and high (lasers) intensity sources. Saturation irradiances for the two-level and three-level molecular systems are also given. Conclusions concerning the expressions are given. One conclusion, which has special importance, involves the production of similar phosphorescence intensities whether the first triplet electronic state is excited directly or is excited via the first excited singlet with intersystem crossing to the first triplet state.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Gires, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-2, 624 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Gires, F. Combaud, J. Phys. 26, 325 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Keyes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 7, 334 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1969).
  10. A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall, London, 1974).
  11. S. J. Strickler, R. A. Berg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 814 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. D. Boutilier, M. B. Blackburn, J. M. Mermet, S. J. Weeks, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, N. Omenetto, Appl. Opt. 17, 2291 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman, T. C. O’Haver, Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1973).
  14. N. Omenetto, J. D. Winefordner, “Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy With Laser Excitation,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 197x).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. R. Lipsett, “The Quantum Efficiency of Luminescence,” in Progress in Dielectrics (Iliffe, London, 1968), Vol. 7.
  18. T. Förster, Fluoreszenze organischer Verbindungen (Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951).
  19. N. Turro, Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin, New York, 1967).
  20. C. A. Parker, Photoluminescence of Solutions (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).
  21. H. H. Jaffe, M. Orchin, Theory and Application of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1962).
  22. B. L. Sharp, A. Goldwasser, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 31, 431 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1978

1977

1976

B. L. Sharp, A. Goldwasser, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 31, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

1966

F. Gires, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-2, 624 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

F. Gires, F. Combaud, J. Phys. 26, 325 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

R. W. Keyes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 7, 334 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962

S. J. Strickler, R. A. Berg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 814 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Benetti, P.

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. A.

S. J. Strickler, R. A. Berg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 814 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Blackburn, M. B.

Boutilier, G. D.

Chu, W.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Combaud, F.

F. Gires, F. Combaud, J. Phys. 26, 325 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Daily, J. W.

Förster, T.

T. Förster, Fluoreszenze organischer Verbindungen (Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951).

Gires, F.

F. Gires, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-2, 624 (1966).
[CrossRef]

F. Gires, F. Combaud, J. Phys. 26, 325 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Goldwasser, A.

B. L. Sharp, A. Goldwasser, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 31, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hanabusa, M.

D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, H.

Hart, L. P.

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hercher, M.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. Hercher, Appl. Opt. 6, 947 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, H.

M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jaffe, H. H.

H. H. Jaffe, M. Orchin, Theory and Application of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Kashiwaga, H.

M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Keyes, R. W.

R. W. Keyes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 7, 334 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lipsett, F. R.

F. R. Lipsett, “The Quantum Efficiency of Luminescence,” in Progress in Dielectrics (Iliffe, London, 1968), Vol. 7.

Mermet, J. M.

O’Haver, T. C.

J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman, T. C. O’Haver, Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Omenetto, N.

G. D. Boutilier, M. B. Blackburn, J. M. Mermet, S. J. Weeks, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, N. Omenetto, Appl. Opt. 17, 2291 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Omenetto, J. D. Winefordner, “Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy With Laser Excitation,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 197x).

Orchin, M.

H. H. Jaffe, M. Orchin, Theory and Application of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1962).

Pantell, R. H.

R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1969).

Parker, C. A.

C. A. Parker, Photoluminescence of Solutions (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

Plankey, F. W.

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Puthoff, H. E.

R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1969).

Schulman, S. G.

J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman, T. C. O’Haver, Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Sharp, B. L.

B. L. Sharp, A. Goldwasser, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 31, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, D. L.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, S. J.

S. J. Strickler, R. A. Berg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 814 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, A. P.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall, London, 1974).

Turro, N.

N. Turro, Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin, New York, 1967).

Wang, C. C.

D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, S. J.

Winefordner, J. D.

G. D. Boutilier, M. B. Blackburn, J. M. Mermet, S. J. Weeks, H. Haraguchi, J. D. Winefordner, N. Omenetto, Appl. Opt. 17, 2291 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Omenetto, J. D. Winefordner, “Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy With Laser Excitation,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 197x).

J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman, T. C. O’Haver, Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Yamashita, M.

M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IBM J. Res. Dev.

R. W. Keyes, IBM J. Res. Dev. 7, 334 (1963).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Hercher, W. Chu, D. L. Stockman, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 954 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

F. Gires, IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-2, 624 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. Yamashita, H. Ikeda, H. Kashiwaga, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 1127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Strickler, R. A. Berg, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 814 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.

F. Gires, F. Combaud, J. Phys. 26, 325 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

D. K. Killinger, C. C. Wang, M. Hanabusa, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2145 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A

B. W. Smith, F. W. Plankey, N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part A: 30, 1459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B

N. Omenetto, L. P. Hart, P. Benetti, J. D. Winefordner, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 28, 301 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Sharp, A. Goldwasser, Spectrochim. Acta Part B: 31, 431 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman, T. C. O’Haver, Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry (Wiley, New York, 1973).

N. Omenetto, J. D. Winefordner, “Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy With Laser Excitation,” in Analytical Laser Spectroscopy, N. Omenetto, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 197x).

R. H. Pantell, H. E. Puthoff, Fundamentals of Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1969).

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall, London, 1974).

F. R. Lipsett, “The Quantum Efficiency of Luminescence,” in Progress in Dielectrics (Iliffe, London, 1968), Vol. 7.

T. Förster, Fluoreszenze organischer Verbindungen (Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1951).

N. Turro, Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin, New York, 1967).

C. A. Parker, Photoluminescence of Solutions (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1968).

H. H. Jaffe, M. Orchin, Theory and Application of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1962).

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