Abstract

The reflectance of silicon measured at 4.3 eV can be used to determine the surface quality of silicon. Crystallographic damage, which occurs with abrasive polishing, and texture, which occurs with epitaxial film growth, can be detected. The effect of surface damage on the optical reflectance of silicon measured at 4.3 eV is reported. The reflectance measurement is nondestructive, simple, fast (on the order of seconds), and sensitive. The technique is readily adaptable to quality control inspection in silicon device manufacturing facilities.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. M. Buck, R. L. Meek, in Silicon Device Processing, C. P. Marsden, Ed., NBS Special Publication 337 (NBS, Washington DC, 1970), p. 419.
  2. R. Stickler, S. R. Booker, Philos. Mag. 8, 859 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. H. McFarlane, C. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1724 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Mendelson, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1570 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. M. Donovan, E. J. Ashley, H. E. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1403 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Cullen, J. Cryst. Growth 9, 107 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. M. Manasevit, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 125 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. J. Cunningham, A. J. Braundmeier, Phys. Rev. B 14, 479 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. G. Endriz, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. National Bureau of Standards, Standard Reference Materials 2003, Aluminum on Glass, A Standard for Specular Spectra Reflectance.
  13. A. M. Goodman, RCA Laboratories, unpublished work.
  14. J. Burmeister, J. Cryst. Growth 11, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

L. J. Cunningham, A. J. Braundmeier, Phys. Rev. B 14, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Manasevit, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

S. H. McFarlane, C. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (3)

J. G. Endriz, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Burmeister, J. Cryst. Growth 11, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Cullen, J. Cryst. Growth 9, 107 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

S. Mendelson, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1570 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

1961 (1)

Alig, R. C.

P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ashley, E. J.

Bennett, H. E.

Booker, S. R.

R. Stickler, S. R. Booker, Philos. Mag. 8, 859 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Braundmeier, A. J.

L. J. Cunningham, A. J. Braundmeier, Phys. Rev. B 14, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Buck, T. M.

T. M. Buck, R. L. Meek, in Silicon Device Processing, C. P. Marsden, Ed., NBS Special Publication 337 (NBS, Washington DC, 1970), p. 419.

Burmeister, J.

J. Burmeister, J. Cryst. Growth 11, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, G. W.

G. W. Cullen, J. Cryst. Growth 9, 107 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, L. J.

L. J. Cunningham, A. J. Braundmeier, Phys. Rev. B 14, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Donovan, T. M.

Duffy, M. T.

P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Endriz, J. G.

J. G. Endriz, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, A. M.

A. M. Goodman, RCA Laboratories, unpublished work.

Kühl, Ch.

Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Manasevit, H. M.

H. M. Manasevit, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, S. H.

S. H. McFarlane, C. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Meek, R. L.

T. M. Buck, R. L. Meek, in Silicon Device Processing, C. P. Marsden, Ed., NBS Special Publication 337 (NBS, Washington DC, 1970), p. 419.

Mendelson, S.

S. Mendelson, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1570 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

Schlötterer, H.

Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schwidefsky, F.

Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, W. E.

J. G. Endriz, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stickler, R.

R. Stickler, S. R. Booker, Philos. Mag. 8, 859 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

S. H. McFarlane, C. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Zanzucchi, P. J.

P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. H. McFarlane, C. C. Wang, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1724 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. Mendelson, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1570 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (3)

G. W. Cullen, J. Cryst. Growth 9, 107 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Manasevit, J. Cryst. Growth 22, 125 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Burmeister, J. Cryst. Growth 11, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem Soc. (1)

P. J. Zanzucchi, M. T. Duffy, R. C. Alig, J. Electrochem Soc. 125, 299 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Ch. Kühl, H. Schlötterer, F. Schwidefsky, J. Electrochem. Soc. 121, 1496 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. Stickler, S. R. Booker, Philos. Mag. 8, 859 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

L. J. Cunningham, A. J. Braundmeier, Phys. Rev. B 14, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Endriz, W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. B 4, 4144 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

National Bureau of Standards, Standard Reference Materials 2003, Aluminum on Glass, A Standard for Specular Spectra Reflectance.

A. M. Goodman, RCA Laboratories, unpublished work.

T. M. Buck, R. L. Meek, in Silicon Device Processing, C. P. Marsden, Ed., NBS Special Publication 337 (NBS, Washington DC, 1970), p. 419.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance of undamaged and damaged silicon surfaces in the 2–5.5-eV range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Estimated rms surface roughness for variously polished silicon surfaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of measured reflectance as a function of equivalent abrasive size for abrasively polished silicon surfaces.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) undamaged, (b) slightly textured, and (c) textured epitaxial silicon surfaces.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Hall Mobility of Silicon Films Grown on Abrasively Polished Sapphire, Compared to Optical Reflectance Data

Metrics