Abstract

A picosecond range-gated light scattering technique is used to measure the microstructure of cataracts in the living eye, with a resolution of the order of the wavelength of light. The cataract is illuminated with ultrashort pulses of light derived from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. The pulses backscattered by the opacity are collected at several angles simultaneously by an array of fiber-optic light guides whose outputs are sequentially sampled by a multichannel picosecond Kerr shutter. This shutter transmits only that light which is scattered from the desired depth in the eye, while blocking from the detector any light scattered by foreground or background tissue and reducing multiple scattering effects. The size distribution of scatterers in the cataract is deduced from the angular distribution of scattering intensities by application of Mie theory. The results of experiments with suspensions of latex microspheres and with rabbit cataracts in vivo are presented. Cataract microstructure down to 0.5 μm has been measured in a rabbit eye and verified with electron microscopy.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. G. Bellows, Ed., Cataract and Abnormalities of the Lens (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1975).
  2. B. Phillipson, Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 103 (1969); Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1089 (1969).
  3. S. Trokel, Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 493 (1962).
  4. G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 10, 459 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
    [PubMed]
  6. A. Spector, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 115 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Maraini, R. Mangili, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 123 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. J. Harding, Exp. Eye Res. 17, 377 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
    [PubMed]
  10. J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Goldmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 789 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  12. J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Hruby, A. Posner, Slit Lamp Examination of Vitreous and Retina (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1967), p. 45.
  15. T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  16. B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  17. J. M. Schurr, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4, 371 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).
  19. M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. P. Bruckner, Proc. SPIE 94, 41 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, Proc. IEEE 62, 313 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. R. D. Sunak, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 11, 277 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  25. The Mie scattering computations were carried out using a modified version of IBM library program 360-17.4.002, Subroutine DAMIE, IBM Program Information Department, Hawthorne, N.Y. 1968).
  26. K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, Opt. Eng. 17, 129 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.
  28. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Additional studies of possible retinal damage effects with frequency doubled mode-locked pulse trains from the Nd:glass laser have confirmed that the incident retinal energy densities encountered with the present technique are well within safety limits.
  30. D. M. Maurice, J. Physiol. 136, 263 (1957).
    [PubMed]
  31. J. G. Bellows, Ref. 1, pp. 313–343.

1978 (1)

K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, Opt. Eng. 17, 129 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. M. Schurr, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4, 371 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

A. P. Bruckner, Proc. SPIE 94, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975).
[PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (5)

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, Proc. IEEE 62, 313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. R. D. Sunak, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 11, 277 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

A. Spector, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maraini, R. Mangili, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 123 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Harding, Exp. Eye Res. 17, 377 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

1971 (2)

1969 (3)

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

B. Phillipson, Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 103 (1969); Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1089 (1969).

1968 (1)

H. Goldmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 789 (1968).
[PubMed]

1962 (1)

S. Trokel, Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 493 (1962).

1957 (1)

D. M. Maurice, J. Physiol. 136, 263 (1957).
[PubMed]

Bellows, J. G.

J. G. Bellows, Ref. 1, pp. 313–343.

Benedek, G. B.

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975).
[PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

G. B. Benedek, Appl. Opt. 10, 459 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, Proc. IEEE 62, 313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brienza, M. J.

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, A. P.

A. P. Bruckner, Proc. SPIE 94, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.

Cinotti, A. A.

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constad, W. H.

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMaria, A. J.

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, A. T. Mattick, Appl. Opt. 10, 2162 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Farnsworth, P. N.

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambling, W. A.

H. R. D. Sunak, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 11, 277 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A. I.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldmann, H.

H. Goldmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 789 (1968).
[PubMed]

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harding, T. J.

T. J. Harding, Exp. Eye Res. 17, 377 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hocker, L. O.

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

Holland, L. M.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hruby, K.

K. Hruby, A. Posner, Slit Lamp Examination of Vitreous and Retina (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1967), p. 45.

Ishimaru, A.

K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, Opt. Eng. 17, 129 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.

Jedziniak, J. A.

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

Kinoshita, J. H.

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

Kuwabara, T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Mack, M. E.

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mangili, R.

G. Maraini, R. Mangili, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 123 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maraini, G.

G. Maraini, R. Mangili, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 123 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattick, A. T.

Maurice, D. M.

D. M. Maurice, J. Physiol. 136, 263 (1957).
[PubMed]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New, G. H. C.

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, Proc. IEEE 62, 313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Newman, B. E.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pecora, R.

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Phillipson, B.

B. Phillipson, Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 103 (1969); Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1089 (1969).

Posner, A.

K. Hruby, A. Posner, Slit Lamp Examination of Vitreous and Retina (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1967), p. 45.

Reynolds, L.

A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.

Schurr, J. M.

J. M. Schurr, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4, 371 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, Opt. Eng. 17, 129 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.

Sigelman, J.

J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Smith, N. H.

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spector, A.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spector, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sunak, H. R. D.

H. R. D. Sunak, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 11, 277 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975).
[PubMed]

Trokel, S.

S. Trokel, Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 493 (1962).

Trokel, S. L.

J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yates, E. M.

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

B. Phillipson, Acta Ophthalmol., Suppl. 103 (1969); Acta Ophthalmol. 47, 1089 (1969).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. Goldmann, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 66, 789 (1968).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Sigelman, S. L. Trokel, A. Spector, Arch. Ophthalmol. 92, 437 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Smith, W. H. Constad, P. N. Farnsworth, A. A. Cinotti, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 1989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. (1)

J. M. Schurr, CRC Crit. Rev. Biochem. 4, 371 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (4)

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, G. B. Benedek, Exp. Eye Res. 20, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Spector, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 115 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maraini, R. Mangili, Exp. Eye Res. 16, 123 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Harding, Exp. Eye Res. 17, 377 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (4)

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

J. A. Jedziniak, J. H. Kinoshita, E. M. Yates, L. O. Hocker, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 11, 905 (1972).
[PubMed]

T. Tanaka, G. B. Benedek, Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975).
[PubMed]

S. Trokel, Invest. Ophthalmol. 1, 493 (1962).

J. Physiol. (1)

D. M. Maurice, J. Physiol. 136, 263 (1957).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. R. D. Sunak, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 11, 277 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Shimizu, A. Ishimaru, Opt. Eng. 17, 129 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. J. Bradley, G. H. C. New, Proc. IEEE 62, 313 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, W. H. Glenn, M. J. Brienza, M. E. Mack, Proc. IEEE 57, 2 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. P. Bruckner, Proc. SPIE 94, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, A. I. Goldman, B. E. Newman, L. M. Holland, T. Kuwabara, Science 185, 362 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

Additional studies of possible retinal damage effects with frequency doubled mode-locked pulse trains from the Nd:glass laser have confirmed that the incident retinal energy densities encountered with the present technique are well within safety limits.

A. P. Bruckner, L. Reynolds, A. Ishimaru, K. Shimizu, to be published.

The Mie scattering computations were carried out using a modified version of IBM library program 360-17.4.002, Subroutine DAMIE, IBM Program Information Department, Hawthorne, N.Y. 1968).

J. G. Bellows, Ref. 1, pp. 313–343.

J. G. Bellows, Ed., Cataract and Abnormalities of the Lens (Grune & Stratton, New York, 1975).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969).

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

K. Hruby, A. Posner, Slit Lamp Examination of Vitreous and Retina (Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1967), p. 45.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of picosecond range-gated angular scattering experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of low-light-level video detector system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical data format. Each peak is the gated signal from the corresponding fiber optic. The target in this case is a white diffusing reflector which serves as a calibration standard. Unequal signal amplitudes result from inequalities in fiber-optic coupling coefficients. This picture is used to normalize all other scattering data. λ = 0.53 μm, θ1 = 178.25°, Δθ = −1.75°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution of scattered intensity for various particle concentrations. Picosecond range-gated case. d = 2.02 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative scattering intensities from rabbit cataract. Sampled depth 3.7 mm behind anterior pole of lens: (a) 2 mm off axis; (b) on axis (λ = 0.53 μm, m = 1.09).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Micrographs of cataractous and normal lens tissue from albino rabbit used in picosecond light scattering experiments: (a), (b), (c) cataractous lens; (d) normal lens; (a) is a light micrograph; the others are transmission electron micrographs. The black line at the bottom right of each picture represents a length of 10 μm.

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