Abstract

Comprehensive measurements in the vacuum uv range of 1200–3000 Å of efficiency, polarization, and scattering of classically ruled and photoresist gratings are reported. The results show that the art of ruling gratings for vacuum uv use has reached a high level of sophistication and that careful analysis of grating properties can lead to useful improvement of the ruling art.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Mount, G. Yamasaki, W. Fowler, W. Fastie, Appl. Opt. 16, 591 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Fastie, D. Kerr, Appl. Opt. 14, 2133 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Breckinridge, Appl. Opt. 10, 286 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 342–346.
  5. J. James, R. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 53.
  6. A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. The term holographic is generally improperly used to describe this type of grating. Furthermore, the techniques of producing a grating by photographing interference fringes predates holographic technology.
  8. R. W. Wood, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 396 (1902).
  9. C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 269 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Palmer, Johns Hopkins University; private communication (1977).
  11. A. Caruso, G. Mount, B. Woodgate, in preparation (1978).
  12. J. Simon, M. Simon, Appl. Opt. 12, 153 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. Mount, G. Yamasaki, W. Fowler, W. Fastie, Appl. Opt. 16, 591 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

1951 (1)

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 396 (1902).

Breckinridge, J. B.

Caruso, A.

A. Caruso, G. Mount, B. Woodgate, in preparation (1978).

Davidsen, A. F.

A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fastie, W.

Fastie, W. G.

A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, W.

Hartig, G. F.

A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

James, J.

J. James, R. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 53.

Kerr, D.

Klein, M.

M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 342–346.

Mount, G.

Palmer, C.

C. Palmer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 269 (1951).
[CrossRef]

C. Palmer, Johns Hopkins University; private communication (1977).

Simon, J.

Simon, M.

Sternberg, R.

J. James, R. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 53.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 396 (1902).

Woodgate, B.

A. Caruso, G. Mount, B. Woodgate, in preparation (1978).

Yamasaki, G.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

A. F. Davidsen, G. F. Hartig, W. G. Fastie, Nature 269, 203 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

R. W. Wood, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 18, 396 (1902).

Other (5)

The term holographic is generally improperly used to describe this type of grating. Furthermore, the techniques of producing a grating by photographing interference fringes predates holographic technology.

C. Palmer, Johns Hopkins University; private communication (1977).

A. Caruso, G. Mount, B. Woodgate, in preparation (1978).

M. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 342–346.

J. James, R. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 53.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the high resolution crossed dispersion echelle/Wadsworth spectrometers on the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft. The rulings of the echelle and cross-disperser gratings are oriented 90° to each other resulting in a 2-D echelle pattern on the 25-mm circular vidicon camera face. (b) Spatial configuration of the IUE spectrometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram (not to scale) of a premonochromator and comparator tank used for efficiency, polarization, and scattering measurements. The position of mirror B may be changed to accommodate gratings of different radius of curvature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the uv polarizer used for the polarization measurements. The LiF prism was mounted on a yoke which allowed tilting in any required direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Efficiency of IUE short wavelength flight replica echelle 71-1-3-1 with observed half-width indicated. Note that the observed halfwidth increases with increasing wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Efficiency of IUE long wavelength flight replica echelle 72-1-4-2 with theoretical full width 1°.4 and observed full width 1°.9.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Observed scattering for plane IUE flight replica echelles short wavelength (SWL) BL 71-1-7-1 (×) (101.95 g/mm, 45°.3 blaze) and long wavelength (LWL) BL 72-3-2-1 (●) (63.209 g/mm, 48°.3 blaze). λ0 was 1236 Å for the short wavelength echelle and 2537 Å for the long wavelength echelle. Both curves are normalized to the blazed order intensity. The asymmetries are caused by the orders next to the order of peak efficiency at wavelength λ0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Efficiency for IUE long wavelength flight replica 217-2-1. Measurements were made at the centers of each of the four grating panels (panel ruling sequences: ○ ● + ×).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Efficiency for IUE short wavelength flight replica 218-2-2. Measurements were made at the centers of each of the four grating panels (panel ruling sequence: ○ ● + ×).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average panel-center efficiency of a two-panel concave short wavelength ruled rocket grating blazed at 1400 Å and coated with Al + MgF2 for a 1216-Å peak efficiency. Efficiency variations between panels were less than 2%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average first order observed scattering for IUE four-panel short wavelength (SWL) flight replica cross disperser 218-2-2. λ0 was 1236 Å, and the curve is normalized to the blazed order intensity. The diffraction pattern (○) due to illumination during testing of a small number of grating grooves has already been subtracted (approximately 20% at ±200 Å, 5% at ±50 Å) from the curve shown. Panel-to-panel variations in scattering were approximately ±25%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Average first-order observed scattering for IUE four-panel long wavelength (LWL) flight replica 217-2-1. λ0 was 2537 Å, and the curve is normalized to the blazed-order intensity. The diffraction pattern (○) due to illumination during testing of a small number of grating grooves has already been subtracted (20% at ±200 Å; 5% at ±5 Å) from the curve shown. Panel-to-panel variations in scattering were approximately ±25%.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

First-order efficiency of plane ruled 3600-g/mm grating BL 1254-1-2-1 and efficiency of plane photoresist 3600-g/mm grating Caruso 2 from 1200 Å to 2700 Å. Note the strong blaze and high efficiency of the ruled grating.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Polarization of ruled 3600-g/mm grating BL 1254-1-2-1 in first order and polarization of photoresist 3600-g/mm grating Caruso 2 in +1, +2 orders 1200–3000 Å. Note the small polarization of the ruled grating below 2300 Å and the rapidly varying polarization of the photoresist grating in the same wavelength region.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

First-order short wavelength scattering of the 3600-g/mm ruled and photoresist gratings with the smeared diffraction pattern due to illumination of a small number of grooves during testing indicated. Note the significantly lower scattering of the photoresist grating and the absence of ghosts. Each curve is normalized to first-order intensity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Average Efficiency in Blazed Order: Coarse Concave Four-Panel Cross Dispersers

Tables Icon

Table II Average-Order Efficiencies.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E g = ( D R m ) / M
R m I G ( θ , λ ) I m ( θ , λ ) = R θ , λ
p λ = R R , λ R λ + R , λ
I s ( λ ) I ( λ 0 ) = S ( λ 0 λ ) W R g ( λ 0 ) ,
f s ( λ ) = λ 1 λ W I ( λ ) R g ( λ ) [ W S ( λ λ ) ] d λ λ 1 λ W I ( λ ) d λ + λ W λ 2 I ( λ ) R g ( λ ) [ W S ( λ λ ) ] d λ λ W λ 2 I ( λ ) d λ .
Δ β = λ / ( a cos β ) ,
cos 2 ϕ = 1 + [ 2 I ( I I I ) ] I I ,

Metrics