Abstract

A method is proposed to determine the atmospheric turbidity factor from records of sunshine autographs. These records have been available for half a century. The proposed method is applied to data from Denmark and compared with electrical conductivities in ice cores of Greenland and Lamb’s dust veil index; both are measures of past volcanism.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. SMIC, Inadvertent Climate Modification. Report of the Study of Man’s Impact on Climate (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1971).
  2. F. Volz, Arch. Meterol. Geophys, Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. G. Stokes, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 6, 84 (1880).
  4. J. Maurer, C. Dorno, Meteorol. Z. 31, 49 (1914).
  5. A. Ångström, Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 17, 1 (1922).
  6. F. Linke, K. Boda, Meteorol. Z. 39, 161 (1922).
  7. C. Froehlich, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere, J. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, 1977), pp. 589–593.
  8. L. Foitzik, H. Hinzpeter, Sonnenstrahlung und Lufttrübung (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1958), pp. 198 and 236.
  9. P. Valko, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 15, 359 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Bider, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 9, 199 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Lauscher, Wetter Leben 25, 7 (1973).
  12. Handbook of Meteorological Instruments, Part 1 (Meteorological Office, London, 1956), p. 577.
  13. WMO-CIMO Working Group on Radiation Measurement Systems, e WMO Bull. 25, 251 (1976).
  14. M. K. Elnesr, A. F. El-Sabban, Pageoph. 59, 256 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Marten, Meteorol. Z. 29, 533 (1912).
  16. J. Maurer, Meteorol. Z. 31, 193 (1914).
  17. F. W. P. Götz, Das Strahlungsklima von Arosa (Berlin, 1926).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. Peppler, Veröff. Bad. Landeswetterwarte 7, 41 (1925).
  19. H. Renier, Ber. Preuss. Met. Inst. 80 (1931).
  20. Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Meteorologische Registrier-und Sondergeräte, Offenbach, B13–B16 (1962).
  21. F. Kasten, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 14, 206 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Perl, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 1, 75 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Junghans, Wiss. Z. Tech. Univ. Dresden 13, 1539 (1964).
  24. F. Steinhauser, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 42, 110 (1934).
  25. These data were taken from an unpublished manuscript by K. Frydendahl, which was kindly made available to us.
  26. H. H. Lamb, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 425 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. U. Hammer, Nature 270, 482 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Ångström, Ark. Geofys. 3, 557 (1962) and Ark. Geofys. 4, 503 (1964).
  29. I. Galindo, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol Ser. B 23, 225 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 41, 42 (1924).
  31. F. Möller, in: Meteorologisches Taschenbuch, Neue Ausgabe, F. Baur, Ed. (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1970), Vol. 2, p. 490.
  32. Water vapor pressure data were taken from a draft of K. Frydendahl, Copenhagen.

1977 (1)

C. U. Hammer, Nature 270, 482 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

WMO-CIMO Working Group on Radiation Measurement Systems, e WMO Bull. 25, 251 (1976).

1975 (1)

I. Galindo, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol Ser. B 23, 225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. Lauscher, Wetter Leben 25, 7 (1973).

1970 (1)

H. H. Lamb, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 425 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. Valko, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 15, 359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. Kasten, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 14, 206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (2)

H. Junghans, Wiss. Z. Tech. Univ. Dresden 13, 1539 (1964).

M. K. Elnesr, A. F. El-Sabban, Pageoph. 59, 256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

A. Ångström, Ark. Geofys. 3, 557 (1962) and Ark. Geofys. 4, 503 (1964).

1959 (1)

F. Volz, Arch. Meterol. Geophys, Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

M. Bider, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 9, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1949 (1)

G. Perl, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 1, 75 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

F. Steinhauser, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 42, 110 (1934).

1931 (1)

H. Renier, Ber. Preuss. Met. Inst. 80 (1931).

1925 (1)

W. Peppler, Veröff. Bad. Landeswetterwarte 7, 41 (1925).

1924 (1)

F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 41, 42 (1924).

1922 (2)

A. Ångström, Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 17, 1 (1922).

F. Linke, K. Boda, Meteorol. Z. 39, 161 (1922).

1914 (2)

J. Maurer, C. Dorno, Meteorol. Z. 31, 49 (1914).

J. Maurer, Meteorol. Z. 31, 193 (1914).

1912 (1)

W. Marten, Meteorol. Z. 29, 533 (1912).

1880 (1)

G. G. Stokes, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 6, 84 (1880).

Ångström, A.

A. Ångström, Ark. Geofys. 3, 557 (1962) and Ark. Geofys. 4, 503 (1964).

A. Ångström, Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 17, 1 (1922).

Bider, M.

M. Bider, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 9, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Boda, K.

F. Linke, K. Boda, Meteorol. Z. 39, 161 (1922).

Dorno, C.

J. Maurer, C. Dorno, Meteorol. Z. 31, 49 (1914).

Elnesr, M. K.

M. K. Elnesr, A. F. El-Sabban, Pageoph. 59, 256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

El-Sabban, A. F.

M. K. Elnesr, A. F. El-Sabban, Pageoph. 59, 256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Foitzik, L.

L. Foitzik, H. Hinzpeter, Sonnenstrahlung und Lufttrübung (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1958), pp. 198 and 236.

Froehlich, C.

C. Froehlich, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere, J. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, 1977), pp. 589–593.

Galindo, I.

I. Galindo, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol Ser. B 23, 225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Götz, F. W. P.

F. W. P. Götz, Das Strahlungsklima von Arosa (Berlin, 1926).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, C. U.

C. U. Hammer, Nature 270, 482 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hinzpeter, H.

L. Foitzik, H. Hinzpeter, Sonnenstrahlung und Lufttrübung (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1958), pp. 198 and 236.

Junghans, H.

H. Junghans, Wiss. Z. Tech. Univ. Dresden 13, 1539 (1964).

Kasten, F.

F. Kasten, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 14, 206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, H. H.

H. H. Lamb, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 425 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lauscher, F.

F. Lauscher, Wetter Leben 25, 7 (1973).

Linke, F.

F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 41, 42 (1924).

F. Linke, K. Boda, Meteorol. Z. 39, 161 (1922).

Marten, W.

W. Marten, Meteorol. Z. 29, 533 (1912).

Maurer, J.

J. Maurer, C. Dorno, Meteorol. Z. 31, 49 (1914).

J. Maurer, Meteorol. Z. 31, 193 (1914).

Möller, F.

F. Möller, in: Meteorologisches Taschenbuch, Neue Ausgabe, F. Baur, Ed. (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1970), Vol. 2, p. 490.

Peppler, W.

W. Peppler, Veröff. Bad. Landeswetterwarte 7, 41 (1925).

Perl, G.

G. Perl, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 1, 75 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Renier, H.

H. Renier, Ber. Preuss. Met. Inst. 80 (1931).

Steinhauser, F.

F. Steinhauser, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 42, 110 (1934).

Stokes, G. G.

G. G. Stokes, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 6, 84 (1880).

Valko, P.

P. Valko, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 15, 359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F.

F. Volz, Arch. Meterol. Geophys, Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol Ser. B (1)

I. Galindo, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol Ser. B 23, 225 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B (4)

F. Kasten, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 14, 206 (1965).
[CrossRef]

G. Perl, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 1, 75 (1949).
[CrossRef]

P. Valko, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 15, 359 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. Bider, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Ser. B 9, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Meterol. Geophys, Bioklimatol. Ser. B (1)

F. Volz, Arch. Meterol. Geophys, Bioklimatol. Ser. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ark. Geofys. (1)

A. Ångström, Ark. Geofys. 3, 557 (1962) and Ark. Geofys. 4, 503 (1964).

Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. (1)

A. Ångström, Ark. Mat. Astron. Fys. 17, 1 (1922).

Ber. Preuss. Met. Inst. (1)

H. Renier, Ber. Preuss. Met. Inst. 80 (1931).

e WMO Bull. (1)

WMO-CIMO Working Group on Radiation Measurement Systems, e WMO Bull. 25, 251 (1976).

Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. (1)

F. Steinhauser, Gerlands Beitr. Geophys. 42, 110 (1934).

Meteorol. Z. (5)

F. Linke, Meteorol. Z. 41, 42 (1924).

W. Marten, Meteorol. Z. 29, 533 (1912).

J. Maurer, Meteorol. Z. 31, 193 (1914).

F. Linke, K. Boda, Meteorol. Z. 39, 161 (1922).

J. Maurer, C. Dorno, Meteorol. Z. 31, 49 (1914).

Nature (1)

C. U. Hammer, Nature 270, 482 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pageoph. (1)

M. K. Elnesr, A. F. El-Sabban, Pageoph. 59, 256 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

H. H. Lamb, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 266, 425 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

G. G. Stokes, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 6, 84 (1880).

Veröff. Bad. Landeswetterwarte (1)

W. Peppler, Veröff. Bad. Landeswetterwarte 7, 41 (1925).

Wetter Leben (1)

F. Lauscher, Wetter Leben 25, 7 (1973).

Wiss. Z. Tech. Univ. Dresden (1)

H. Junghans, Wiss. Z. Tech. Univ. Dresden 13, 1539 (1964).

Other (9)

Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD), Meteorologische Registrier-und Sondergeräte, Offenbach, B13–B16 (1962).

These data were taken from an unpublished manuscript by K. Frydendahl, which was kindly made available to us.

F. Möller, in: Meteorologisches Taschenbuch, Neue Ausgabe, F. Baur, Ed. (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1970), Vol. 2, p. 490.

Water vapor pressure data were taken from a draft of K. Frydendahl, Copenhagen.

Handbook of Meteorological Instruments, Part 1 (Meteorological Office, London, 1956), p. 577.

F. W. P. Götz, Das Strahlungsklima von Arosa (Berlin, 1926).
[CrossRef]

SMIC, Inadvertent Climate Modification. Report of the Study of Man’s Impact on Climate (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1971).

C. Froehlich, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere, J. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, 1977), pp. 589–593.

L. Foitzik, H. Hinzpeter, Sonnenstrahlung und Lufttrübung (Akad. Verlagsges., Leipzig, 1958), pp. 198 and 236.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linke’s turbidity factor Tg as a function of the threshold solar elevation α and threshold irradiance values Ics as reported in Table I. To show the good linear relationship, discrete data are given for Ics = 20 mW cm−2, as recommended by WMO 1976.13

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1/(bgm) as a function of solar elevation in individual data points and the best fit for α < 30°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Turbidity data from Egypt. Giza’s data are derived from Elnesr and El-Sabban14 and our method. Helwan’s data are reported from Steinhauser.24 The Red Sea data are from Gorczynski (quoted in Steinhauser24).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

For the period 1892–1940 values are given of: (a) Turbidity factor Tg for January and July averaged from data in Copenhagen and Bovbjerg. The turbidity factor is calculated from the time period between astronomical sunrise/sunset and the beginning/end of the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder traces on days with cloudless sunrise/sunset (data from Frydendahl25). In addition, turbidity factor for urban (- · -) and rural (- - -) locations are indicated (after Steinhauser24) for the period before 1934. (b) Electrical conductivity in μS/cm in Greenland ice cores (Hammer27). (c) Adjusted dust veil index (DVI) for the northern hemisphere (Lamb26).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Values of Ics

Equations (13)

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I = I 0 exp ( b g T g m ) ,
T g = 1 / ( m b g ) ln ( I 0 / I c s ) .
T g = c 1 α + c 2 , c 1 = 0.3 deg 1 , c 2 = 2.0 ,
1 / ( b g m ) = 0.154 α + 1.05 α in deg .
T g = ( 0.154 α + 1.05 ) ln ( I 0 / I c s ) ,
T g = c 3 α + c 4 ,
c 3 = 0.154 ln ( I 0 / I c s ) in deg 1 ,
c 4 = 1.05 ln ( I 0 / I c s ) .
I 0 = I ¯ 0 ( R ¯ / R ) 2 .
m ( p ) = m ( p / p 0 ) .
c 5 = ( p 0 / p ) 0.154 ln ( I 0 / I c s ) in deg 1 ,
c 6 = ( p 0 / p ) 1.05 ln ( I 0 / I c s ) ,
T g = c 5 α + c 6 .

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