Abstract

On the longitude of Scandinavia the dayside auroral emissions within the polar cleft can be measured continuously in midwinter. The intensity of the Rayleigh scattered sunlight is measured to be about 100 R/Å at 4860 Å when the solar depression angle is 10° and increases rapidly with decreasing solar depression angle. The effect of scattering vanishes around 14° solar depression angle, and the intensity of the sky background can be as low as 2 R/Å or 3 R/Å. Absolute measurements of auroral emissions for smaller so depression angles than 14° require separate observations of the sky background.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. G. Sivjee, B. Hultqvist, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1597 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. G. Blättner, H. G. Horak, D. G. Collins, M. B. Wells, Appl. Opt. 13, 534 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. V. Starkov, Ya. J. Feldstein, Polar Aurora 17, 22 (1968).
  5. S. A. Zaitzeva, M. I. Pudovkin, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 518 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).
  7. K. H. Lloyd, Planet. Space Sci. 16, 1071 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 19xx), 56th Edition, p. F-196.
  9. D. J. Baker, G. J. Romick, Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. G. Sivjee, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 533 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. Eather, Rev. Geophys. 5, 207 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. Collins, W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, H. G. Horak, Appl. Opt. 11, 2684 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Witt, A. Lundin, Institute of Meteorology report AP-2, University of Stockholm (1971).
  14. G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1976

S. A. Zaitzeva, M. I. Pudovkin, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 518 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 533 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Baker, G. J. Romick, Appl. Opt. 15, 1966 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

G. G. Sivjee, B. Hultqvist, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

1972

C. G. Collins, W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, H. G. Horak, Appl. Opt. 11, 2684 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

G. V. Starkov, Ya. J. Feldstein, Polar Aurora 17, 22 (1968).

K. H. Lloyd, Planet. Space Sci. 16, 1071 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

R. H. Eather, Rev. Geophys. 5, 207 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Akasofu, S.-I.

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Baker, D. J.

Blättner, W. G.

Collins, C. G.

Collins, D. G.

Derblom, H.

W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).

Dye, J. E.

G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Eather, R. H.

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Eather, Rev. Geophys. 5, 207 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Feldstein, Ya. J.

G. V. Starkov, Ya. J. Feldstein, Polar Aurora 17, 22 (1968).

Gunnarsson, H.

W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).

Heikkila, W. J.

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Horak, H. G.

Hultqvist, B.

G. G. Sivjee, B. Hultqvist, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ladell, L.

W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).

Lloyd, K. H.

K. H. Lloyd, Planet. Space Sci. 16, 1071 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lundin, A.

G. Witt, A. Lundin, Institute of Meteorology report AP-2, University of Stockholm (1971).

Pudovkin, M. I.

S. A. Zaitzeva, M. I. Pudovkin, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 518 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Romick, G. J.

Sivjee, G. G.

G. G. Sivjee, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 533 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, B. Hultqvist, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Starkov, G. V.

G. V. Starkov, Ya. J. Feldstein, Polar Aurora 17, 22 (1968).

Stoffregen, W.

W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).

Wells, M. B.

Wilhelm, N.

G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Winningham, J. D.

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Witt, G.

G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Witt, A. Lundin, Institute of Meteorology report AP-2, University of Stockholm (1971).

Zaitzeva, S. A.

S. A. Zaitzeva, M. I. Pudovkin, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 518 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

G. Witt, J. E. Dye, N. Wilhelm, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 223 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 38, 533 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

W. J. Heikkila, J. D. Winningham, R. H. Eather, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 4100 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

G. G. Sivjee, B. Hultqvist, Planet. Space Sci. 23, 1597 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Zaitzeva, M. I. Pudovkin, Planet. Space Sci. 24, 518 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lloyd, Planet. Space Sci. 16, 1071 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Polar Aurora

G. V. Starkov, Ya. J. Feldstein, Polar Aurora 17, 22 (1968).

Rev. Geophys.

R. H. Eather, Rev. Geophys. 5, 207 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Witt, A. Lundin, Institute of Meteorology report AP-2, University of Stockholm (1971).

R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 19xx), 56th Edition, p. F-196.

W. Stoffregen, H. Derblom, L. Ladell, H. Gunnarsson, Uppsala Ionospheric Observatory report 17B (1971).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The spectrum between 5800 Å and 4800 Å. In this case the auroral green line is a dominating feature, and Hβ may be identified.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spectrum between 5800 Å and 4800 Å close to local noon. Only the auroral green line is identified.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The minimum intensity measured by photometers and calculations of Sd during daytime. Before 10-h UT the sky was misty, then it became clear.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The minimum intensity measured by photometers and calculations of Sd during daytime. The sky was clear.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The intensity of the sky background derived from the photometer measurements as a function of Sd.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Primary and total scattered intensity transmitted through a Rayleigh + ozone atmosphere as a function of Sd.3 In these calculations, the solar spectral irradiance I incident on the atmosphere was taken to be unity. On the right-hand side the scattered intensity is converted to absolute unity R/Å, using an incident solar spectral irradiance of 19.4 μW cm−2 Å−1. The lower limit for observing scattered sunlight is about 2 R/Å, which is an indicated value of the spectral intensity of night airglow at 5000 Å.

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