Abstract

To study the OH-ion contamination mechanism in silica-based optical fiber waveguides, a method for measuring the OH-ion distribution profile in fiber-rod preforms has been developed. Using a low-OH-content optical fiber as a light probe of the measuring set, high spatial resolution of several tens of micrometers was obtained. Using this technique, the OH-ion distribution profiles in nondoped silica-rod preforms were measured optically at 2.73 μm. The OH-ion distribution profile observed closely agreed with the calculated diffusion profile, from which the diffusion coefficient of OH-ion in silica glass was estimated to be ~7.0 × 10−9 cm2 sec−1 at 1600°C.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, Electron. Lett. 12, 310 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.
  4. M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Kaiser, A. R. Tynes, H. W. Astle, A. D. Peason, W. G. French, R. E. Jaeger, A. H. Cherin, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1141 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

1977 (3)

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, Electron. Lett. 12, 310 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1962 (1)

T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

Ainslie, B. J.

B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Araki, S.

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Astle, H. W.

Bell, T.

T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

Cherin, A. H.

France, P. W.

B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
[CrossRef]

French, W. G.

Fukuda, O.

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Hetherington, G.

T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

Horiguchi, M.

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, Electron. Lett. 12, 310 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Izawa, T.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jack, K. H.

T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

Jaeger, R. E.

Kaiser, P.

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kawana, A.

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Miyashita, T.

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, T.

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Newns, G. R.

B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Osanai, H.

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, Electron. Lett. 12, 310 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Peason, A. D.

Sanada, K.

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Shibata, N.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Takata, H.

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

Takeda, A.

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, A. R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Izawa, N. Shibata, A. Takeda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 33 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, Electron. Lett. 12, 310 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Osanai, T. Shioda, T. Moriyama, S. Araki, M. Horiguchi, T. Izawa, H. Takata, Electron. Lett. 12, 549 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Kawachi, M. Horiguchi, A. Kawana, T. Miyashita, Electron. Lett. 13, 247 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

B. J. Ainslie, P. W. France, G. R. Newns, Mater. Res. Bull. 12, 481 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

T. Bell, G. Hetherington, K. H. Jack, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 141 (1962).

Other (1)

H. Takata, M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, O. Fukuda, K. Sanada, S. Araki, Second European Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, September1976, post deadline paper PDL-1.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring set of OH-ion distribution profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic cross section of a light injection system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Internal spectral characteristics of a measuring set.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagram and interference photomicrograph of a specimen with a single layer of GeO2-doped silica glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light transmission profile at 2.00 μm and 2.73 μm for rod preform with a single layer of GeO2-doped silica glass.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Light transmission profile at 2.73 μm for a nondoped silica rod preform. The specimen is 1 mm thick. Regions A, B, and C show the fused-quartz substrate region, the OH-ion diffused region, and the OH-ion free region, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Loss spectra of a nondoped silica rod preform. Curves A, B, and C illustrate the loss spectra of regions A, B, and C in Fig. 6, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OH-ion concentration-distance curve of a nondoped silica rod preform. Circular points were obtained from the data in Figs. 6 and 7. Solid line shows the error-function complement, where the diffusion coefficient is 7.0 × 10−9 cm2 sec−1, and the diffusion time is 400 sec.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross sections of a composite tube and a preformed rod: (a) a composite tube cross section before collapsing; and (b) a preformed rod cross section.

Tables (1)

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Table I Characteristics of Three Kinds of Low-OH-Content Optical Fibers

Equations (6)

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S = 2 [ a + ( g + d ) tan θ ] ,
N ( r ) = N 0 2 erf ( R 0 2 ( D t ) 1 / 2 { 1 [ 1 r ( 2 r 0 r ) R 0 2 ] 1 / 2 } )
r 0 Δ R = ( r 0 R 0 { 1 [ 1 r ( 2 r 0 r ) R 0 2 ] 1 / 2 } ) 12 , ( R 0 = 6 mm , r 0 = 1 mm ) , r = r 0
R = R 0 { 1 [ 1 r ( 2 r 0 r ) R 0 2 ] 1 / 2 } .
N ( R ) = N 0 2 erf [ R 2 ( D t ) 1 / 2 ] ,
N ( r ) = N 0 2 erf ( R 0 2 ( D t ) 1 / 2 { 1 [ 1 r ( 2 r 0 r ) R 0 2 ] 1 / 2 } ) .

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