Abstract

Effects of ion etching on the optical properties and lattice disorder of GaAs were studied by means of photoluminescence, He backscattering, and enhanced chemical etching. The photoluminescence intensity excited by a He–Cd laser (3250 Å), which penetrates a distance of approximately 150 Å into GaAs, is decreased to less than 20% of the initial value after ion etching by 100-eV Ar and recovered almost completely by 450° C annealing. Helium backscattering and electron diffraction pattern indicate the existence of an amorphous layer, the thickness of which is 20% larger than the value estimated by LSS theory. Photoluminescence measurement shows that beyond this amorphous region there are distributed a lot of nonradiative recombination centers as well as radiative recombination centers which diffuse into the bulk. The depth of this distribution is larger than that of the amorphous region by 1 order of magnitude.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Logan, F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4172 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Comerford, P. Zory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 208 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Y. Cho, W. C. Ballamy, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 783 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Jacobson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2674 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. MacDonald, D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1609 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Summers, J. C. Miklosz, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4653 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. L. Garvin, E. Garmire, S. Somekh, H. Stoll, A. Yariv, Appl. Opt. 12, 455 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Somekh, H. C. Casey, Appl. Opt. 16, 126 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).
  18. H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2031 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).
  22. The calculation is based on the table by K. B. Winterbon, Ion Implantation Range and Energy Deposition Distributions (Plenum, New York, 1975), Vol. 2.
  23. R. Bauerlein, Z. Phys. 176, 498 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1977

1976

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Cho, W. C. Ballamy, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 783 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

L. Comerford, P. Zory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 208 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. A. Logan, F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4172 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Summers, J. C. Miklosz, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4653 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Garvin, E. Garmire, S. Somekh, H. Stoll, A. Yariv, Appl. Opt. 12, 455 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2031 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966

R. J. MacDonald, D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1609 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

R. L. Jacobson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963

J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).

R. Bauerlein, Z. Phys. 176, 498 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baglin, J. E. E.

J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2031 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ballamy, W. C.

A. Y. Cho, W. C. Ballamy, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 783 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bauerlein, R.

R. Bauerlein, Z. Phys. 176, 498 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Blum, F. A.

F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Casey, H. C.

S. Somekh, H. C. Casey, Appl. Opt. 16, 126 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, P. K.

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

A. Y. Cho, W. C. Ballamy, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 783 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. J.

J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Comerford, L.

L. Comerford, P. Zory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 208 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Eisen, F. H.

H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Foy, E. W.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Funakashi, H.

T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).

Gamo, K.

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

Garvin, H. L.

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Garvin, E. Garmire, S. Somekh, H. Stoll, A. Yariv, Appl. Opt. 12, 455 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gross, C.

G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haneman, D.

R. J. MacDonald, D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1609 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, I.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Holton, W. C.

F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, R. L.

R. L. Jacobson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kanzaki, N.

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kawabe, M.

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lawley, K. L.

F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lindhard, J.

J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).

Logan, R. A.

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Logan, F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4172 (1973).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R. J.

R. J. MacDonald, D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1609 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J. W.

H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McLevige, W. V.

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Miklosz, J. C.

C. J. Summers, J. C. Miklosz, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4653 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Miller, W. E.

G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H.

H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Panish, M. B.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

R. A. Logan, F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4172 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G. W.

G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Scharff, M.

J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).

Schiott, H. E.

J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).

Sell, D. D.

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, J. M.

J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, S.

Stoll, H.

Streetman, B. G.

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

C. J. Summers, J. C. Miklosz, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4653 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sumski, F.

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tanoue, H.

T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).

Tsurushima, T.

T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).

Ueno, Y.

T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).

Vaidyanathan, K. V.

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wecht, K. W.

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, G. K.

R. L. Jacobson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Winterbon, K. B.

The calculation is based on the table by K. B. Winterbon, Ion Implantation Range and Energy Deposition Distributions (Plenum, New York, 1975), Vol. 2.

Woodcock, J. M.

J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Garvin, E. Garmire, S. Somekh, H. Stoll, A. Yariv, Appl. Opt. 12, 455 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, H. W.

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2031 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Zory, P.

L. Comerford, P. Zory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 208 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. K. Chatterjee, W. V. McLevige, K. V. Vaidyanathan, B. G. Streetman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 509 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakamura, A. Yariv, H. W. Yen, S. Somekh, H. L. Garvin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 515 (1973).
[CrossRef]

I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, E. W. Foy, F. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 109 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. Comerford, P. Zory, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 208 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Merz, R. A. Logan, W. Wiegmann, A. C. Gossard, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 337 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Y. Cho, W. C. Ballamy, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 783 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Jacobson, G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. J. MacDonald, D. Haneman, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1609 (1966).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Blum, K. L. Lawley, W. C. Holton, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2605 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Logan, F. K. Reinhart, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4172 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Summers, J. C. Miklosz, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4653 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Casey, D. D. Sell, K. W. Wecht, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 250 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, J. E. E. Baglin, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2031 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

H. Muller, F. H. Eisen, J. W. Mayer, J. Electrochem. Soc. 122, 651 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

S. Namba, M. Kawabe, N. Kanzaki, K. Masuda, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1348 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Aoki, K. Gamo, K. Masuda, S. Namba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 15, 405 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd.

J. Lindhard, M. Scharff, H. E. Schiott, K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33, No. 14 (1963).

Solid State Electron.

J. M. Woodcock, J. M. Shannon, D. J. Clark, Solid State Electron. 18, 267 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sachse, W. E. Miller, C. Gross, Solid State Electron. 18, 431 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

R. Bauerlein, Z. Phys. 176, 498 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Other

The calculation is based on the table by K. B. Winterbon, Ion Implantation Range and Energy Deposition Distributions (Plenum, New York, 1975), Vol. 2.

T. Tsurushima, H. Tanoue, H. Funakashi, Y. Ueno, in Technical Digest of Eighth Symposium on Ion Implantation and Submicron Fabrication (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan, 1977), p. 89 (in Japanese).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dependence of the etching rate on ion energy, (b) Dependence of the etching rate on ion current density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the photoluminescence intensity which is monitored by the peak intensity at 8317 Å on the etching voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Channeled backscattering spectra of GaAs before and after ion etching by 100-eV and 2-keV Ar. The horizontal axis corresponds to the energy of the backscattered He, and the vertical axis corresponds to the number of the backscattered He atoms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated distribution of the deposited energy on the GaAs surface after 75-min etching by 2-keV and 20-A/cm2 Ar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Chemical etching behavior enhanced by ion bombardment. ○: GaAs 60-keV Ar ion implanted at the dose of 1 × 1016 cm−2. •: GaAs ion etched by 2-keV Ar.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Defects distribution monitored by photoluminescence intensity. θ indicates the incident angle of ion beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photoluminescence spectra at different depths from the surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the photoluminescence intensity and spectrum on annealing temperature.

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