Abstract

Low-loss (1.4-cm−1) single-mode rib waveguides in AlxGa1−xAs heterostructures are fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy, double anodization, and photolithographic techniques. Switching of optical channels between adjacent waveguides is accomplished with directional coupler switches controlled with electrodes laid over an isolating dielectric, making a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) configuration. Complete switching is achieved with <20 V applied to a stepped Δβ reversal electrode configuration. A 2 × 4 switching matrix with low-loss lateral offsets of the waveguides is demonstrated. By laying out several optical switching and guiding experiments within a 128-μm stripe, we show that independent optical circuits can be packed with adequate optical isolation using centerline separations ≈10 μm.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Tada, K. Hirose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 561 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Hirose, K. Tada, H. Yanagawa, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Solid State Development (Tokyo, 1976); Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, Suppl. 16-1, 311 (1977).
  3. M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. V. Schmidt, L. L. Buhl, Electron. Lett. (GB) 12, 575 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Zernike, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1974), paper WAS-1.
  9. V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 767 (1976).
  10. J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. K. Reinhart, J. C. Shelton, R. A. Logan, in International Conference on Integrated and Optical Fiber Communications (IOOC), Tokyo (18–20 July 1977), postdeadline paper p. 11, p. 41.
  13. F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. J. Leonberger, C. O. Bozler, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1197 (1977); Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 223 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. EBES-2, Bell Laboratories’ Electron Beam Exposure System, Mod 2. The system is raster-scanned with a 0.25-μm address unit capability.
  17. S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).
  18. L. O. Wilson, F. K. Reinhart, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 53, 717 (1974).
  19. F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, in Proceedings 5th Biennial Cornell EE Conference (Cornell U., Ithaca, N.Y., 1975), Vol. 5, p. 57.
  21. J. L. Merz, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 456 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1977 (3)

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, C. O. Bozler, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1197 (1977); Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (7)

B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Merz, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 456 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, L. L. Buhl, Electron. Lett. (GB) 12, 575 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 767 (1976).

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (3)

K. Tada, K. Hirose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 561 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Wilson, F. K. Reinhart, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 53, 717 (1974).

1954 (1)

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).

Blum, F. A.

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boxler, C. O.

F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bozler, C. O.

F. J. Leonberger, C. O. Bozler, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1197 (1977); Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brastad, M. H.

B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

R. V. Schmidt, L. L. Buhl, Electron. Lett. (GB) 12, 575 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. L. Merz, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 456 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Combemale, Y.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, J. P.

F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ermanis, F.

B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hirose, K.

K. Tada, K. Hirose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 561 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirose, K. Tada, H. Yanagawa, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Solid State Development (Tokyo, 1976); Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, Suppl. 16-1, 311 (1977).

Kogelnik, H.

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lawley, K. C.

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. P.

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

F. J. Leonberger, C. O. Bozler, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1197 (1977); Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, in Proceedings 5th Biennial Cornell EE Conference (Cornell U., Ithaca, N.Y., 1975), Vol. 5, p. 57.

F. K. Reinhart, J. C. Shelton, R. A. Logan, in International Conference on Integrated and Optical Fiber Communications (IOOC), Tokyo (18–20 July 1977), postdeadline paper p. 11, p. 41.

Mathieu, X.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

J. L. Merz, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 456 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 767 (1976).

Reiber, L.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Wilson, F. K. Reinhart, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 53, 717 (1974).

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, J. C. Shelton, R. A. Logan, in International Conference on Integrated and Optical Fiber Communications (IOOC), Tokyo (18–20 July 1977), postdeadline paper p. 11, p. 41.

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, in Proceedings 5th Biennial Cornell EE Conference (Cornell U., Ithaca, N.Y., 1975), Vol. 5, p. 57.

Roy, A. M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, L. L. Buhl, Electron. Lett. (GB) 12, 575 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B.

B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sejourne, B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, D. W.

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, J. C.

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
[PubMed]

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, J. C. Shelton, R. A. Logan, in International Conference on Integrated and Optical Fiber Communications (IOOC), Tokyo (18–20 July 1977), postdeadline paper p. 11, p. 41.

Sinclair, W. R.

F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 767 (1976).

Tada, K.

K. Tada, K. Hirose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 561 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirose, K. Tada, H. Yanagawa, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Solid State Development (Tokyo, 1976); Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, Suppl. 16-1, 311 (1977).

Werner, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, L. O.

L. O. Wilson, F. K. Reinhart, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 53, 717 (1974).

Yanagawa, H.

K. Hirose, K. Tada, H. Yanagawa, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Solid State Development (Tokyo, 1976); Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, Suppl. 16-1, 311 (1977).

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1974), paper WAS-1.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Campbell, F. A. Blum, D. W. Shaw, K. C. Lawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 202 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, J. P. Donnelly, C. O. Boxler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 652 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, T. P. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 270 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Tada, K. Hirose, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 561 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. K. Reinhart, W. R. Sinclair, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 21 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Merz, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 456 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

L. O. Wilson, F. K. Reinhart, Bell Sys. Tech. J. 53, 717 (1974).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

S. E. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 33, 661 (1954).

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 767 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (GB) (1)

R. V. Schmidt, L. L. Buhl, Electron. Lett. (GB) 12, 575 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 90D (1977); Appl. Opt. 17, 890 (1978).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (2)

J. C. Shelton, F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1198 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, C. O. Bozler, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-24, 1197 (1977); Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

B. Schwartz, F. Ermanis, M. H. Brastad, J. Electrochem. Soc. 123, 1089 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

EBES-2, Bell Laboratories’ Electron Beam Exposure System, Mod 2. The system is raster-scanned with a 0.25-μm address unit capability.

K. Hirose, K. Tada, H. Yanagawa, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Solid State Development (Tokyo, 1976); Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 16, Suppl. 16-1, 311 (1977).

F. K. Reinhart, J. C. Shelton, R. A. Logan, in International Conference on Integrated and Optical Fiber Communications (IOOC), Tokyo (18–20 July 1977), postdeadline paper p. 11, p. 41.

F. Zernike, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated Optics II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1974), paper WAS-1.

F. K. Reinhart, R. A. Logan, in Proceedings 5th Biennial Cornell EE Conference (Cornell U., Ithaca, N.Y., 1975), Vol. 5, p. 57.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of coupled waveguide pair.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of cleaved chip. The small height of the guiding ribs is emphasized in this cleaved view of a coupled waveguide pair. Etching has removed the oxide except under the metallic electrode protecting the left-hand rib. The electrode is slightly misplaced to the left.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effective refractive index of slab waveguide modes. Optical guiding in the plane is provided by the ribs and can be understood in terms of effective refractive indices for propagation in uniform slabs with the two thicknesses. The waveguide thickness h is given on the right-hand ordinate, and the corresponding effective index of the fundamental planar TE mode is given on the left.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic layout of waveguides and electrodes. This plan view has been compressed in the direction of propagation by a factor ≈65. The inputs of the sixteen waveguides, A-P, are at the bottom, outputs at top. Waveguides I,L,M,N contain a 1-μm offset; waveguides J and K contain a 2-μm offset. Waveguides A and B have a centerline separation of 8 μm, the average for all the guides. Electrodes overlaying the guides are shown as darkened lines, together with their interconnections to contact pads.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transition region. The transition region 0.2 mm long shown in Fig. 4 is at the center of this photomicrograph. The interdigitated electrodes extend for 1.8 mm above and below the transition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stepped offsets of waveguides in transition region of the 2 × 4 matrix. Two of the 0.25-μm steps of the guides are visible in the region without electrodes and one under the upper electrode. Waveguide H is straight.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Conventional coupling switch.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

2 × 4 matrix of coupling switches.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Modified stepped Δβ reversal switch.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transmissivity of single-mode rib waveguides.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = Δ β / 2 κ .
T 21 = j sin [ ϕ ( 1 + A 2 ) 1 / 2 ] ( 1 + A 2 ) 1 / 2 .

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