Abstract

The polarization introduced by gold-coated and aluminum-coated concave reflection gratings used in a grazing incidence monochromator has been measured over the spectral range from 20 nm to 130 nm. In every case the polarization ratio (P = Rp/Rs) is greater than 0.8 for wavelengths less than 40 nm and appears to be approaching unity below 20 nm. For both new and aged or contaminated gratings, the observed polarizations are consistent with those calculated assuming reflection occurs at a plane thin multilayer region with the optical constants chosen to simulate the grating surface.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Rabinovitch, L. R. Canfield, R. P. Madden, Appl. Opt. 4, 1005 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. N. Hamm, R. A. MacRae, E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1460 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 124 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Phys. Rev. 173, 80 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. T. Cole, F. Oppenheimer, Appl. Opt. 1, 709 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Uzan, H. Damany, J. Romand, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 5735 (1965).
  7. I. Higashino, N. Watanabe, Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. 13, 33 (1972).
  8. E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, in Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 150–152.
  9. J. A. R. Samson, Proceedings Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation and Developments, Orsay, France, 12–14 September 1977, to be published, Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1977).
  10. V. G. Horton, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Appl. Opt. 8, 667 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, Opt. Commun. 12, 164 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Wolter, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1956), Vol. 24, pp. 461–554.
    [CrossRef]
  14. H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, Report DESY SR-74/7 (DESY, Hamburg, 1974).
  15. T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.
  18. M. Neviere, E. G. Loewen, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 29–31.

1977 (1)

T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, Opt. Commun. 12, 164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

I. Higashino, N. Watanabe, Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. 13, 33 (1972).

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Phys. Rev. 173, 80 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (3)

1962 (1)

Arakawa, E. T.

T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Horton, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Appl. Opt. 8, 667 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 124 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Hamm, R. A. MacRae, E. T. Arakawa, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1460 (1965).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, in Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 150–152.

Cairns, R. B.

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Phys. Rev. 173, 80 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

Clausing, R. E.

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Colchin, R. J.

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Cole, T. T.

Damany, H.

E. Uzan, H. Damany, J. Romand, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 5735 (1965).

Emerson, L. C.

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gudat, W.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, Report DESY SR-74/7 (DESY, Hamburg, 1974).

Hagemann, H.-J.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, Report DESY SR-74/7 (DESY, Hamburg, 1974).

Hamm, R. N.

Hanson, W. F.

Heatherly, L.

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Higashino, I.

I. Higashino, N. Watanabe, Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. 13, 33 (1972).

Horton, V. G.

Inagaki, T.

T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, C.

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, Report DESY SR-74/7 (DESY, Hamburg, 1974).

Lepere, D.

Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.

Loewen, E. G.

M. Neviere, E. G. Loewen, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 29–31.

MacRae, R. A.

Madden, R. P.

Maystre, D.

D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, Opt. Commun. 12, 164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, Opt. Commun. 12, 164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

M. Neviere, E. G. Loewen, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 29–31.

Oppenheimer, F.

Petroff, Y.

Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.

Pinchaux, R.

Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.

Rabinovitch, K.

Romand, J.

E. Uzan, H. Damany, J. Romand, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 5735 (1965).

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Phys. Rev. 173, 80 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. A. R. Samson, Proceedings Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation and Developments, Orsay, France, 12–14 September 1977, to be published, Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1977).

Thiry, P.

Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.

Twichell, J. C.

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uzan, E.

E. Uzan, H. Damany, J. Romand, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 5735 (1965).

Watanabe, N.

I. Higashino, N. Watanabe, Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. 13, 33 (1972).

Williams, M. W.

T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Horton, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Appl. Opt. 8, 667 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, in Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 150–152.

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1956), Vol. 24, pp. 461–554.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

E. Uzan, H. Damany, J. Romand, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 260, 5735 (1965).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

See, for example, R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. C. Twichell, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 437 (1976); R. E. Clausing, L. C. Emerson, L. Heatherly, R. J. Colchin, J. Nucl. Mater. 63, 495 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. (1)

I. Higashino, N. Watanabe, Mem. Fac. Eng., Osaka City Univ. 13, 33 (1972).

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Maystre, R. C. McPhedran, Opt. Commun. 12, 164 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Phys. Rev. 173, 80 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Inagaki, E. T. Arakawa, R. N. Hamm, M. W. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 15, 3243 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. A. R. Samson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 859 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Wolter, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1956), Vol. 24, pp. 461–554.
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, Report DESY SR-74/7 (DESY, Hamburg, 1974).

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, in Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 150–152.

J. A. R. Samson, Proceedings Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation and Developments, Orsay, France, 12–14 September 1977, to be published, Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1977).

Y. Petroff, P. Thiry, R. Pinchaux, D. Lepere, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 70–73.

M. Neviere, E. G. Loewen, Proceedings 5th International Conference Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics, M. C. Castex, M. Pouey, N. Pouey, Eds., Montpellier, France, 5–9 September1977, Vol. 3, pp. 29–31.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured polarization for aluminized gratings: A—ORNL new and aged after about 2-yr use; B—ORNL new and after 2-wk use; C—University of Nebraska aged; +—Cole and Oppenheimer;5 Φ—Uzan et al.6

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured polarization for three gold-coated gratings. A and B were both new gratings, while C was a slightly used grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured polarization for the two new aluminized gratings compared with the calculated values for aluminum plus different surface layers of Al2O3 with thicknesses from 0 nm to 7 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured polarization for aluminized gratings compared with the calculated values for aluminum plus 3.5 nm of Al2O3 plus different surface layers of polystyrene.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured polarization for gold gratings compared with the calculated values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured polarization for gold gratings compared with the calculated values for gold with different surface layers of polystyrene.

Metrics