Abstract

A ten-color Fabry photometer was used during Skylab missions SL-2 and SL-3 to measure sky brightness and polarization associated with zodiacal light, background starlight, F region airglow, and spacecraft corona. A brief description is given of the design, calibration, and performance of the instrument.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).
  2. The backup instrument canister was modified and carried aloft by the SL-2 crew to deploy a parasol out the solar scientific airlock to reduce the high workshop temperature due to loss of the meteoroid shield during launch.
  3. G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. H. Blifford, Appl. Opt. 5, 105 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).
  7. R. I. Mitchell, H. L. Johnson, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 32 (U. Arizona, 1969).
  8. D. S. Hayes, D. W. Latham, Astrophys. J. 197, 593 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Bahner, Astrophys. J. 138, 1314 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Schild, unpublished measurements reproduced in M. Breger, Communications in Astronomy, No. 1 (SUNY, Stony Brook, 1971).
  12. R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).
  13. Equivalent number of tenth magnitude solar (G2V) stars per square degree at mean solar distance.
  14. F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Stebbins, G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. B. Oke, in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, L. Goldberg, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, Calif., 1965), Vol. 3, pp. 23–46.
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 41–44.
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Weinberg, Appl. Opt. 3, 1057 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).
  21. D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contractor Report CR-2759 (SUNY—Albany, 1976).
  22. J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, R. C. Hahn, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 45–51.
    [CrossRef]

1975 (2)

Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).

D. S. Hayes, D. W. Latham, Astrophys. J. 197, 593 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).

1970 (1)

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

1966 (2)

I. H. Blifford, Appl. Opt. 5, 105 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1963 (2)

A. T. Young, Appl. Opt. 2, 51 (1963).
[CrossRef]

K. Bahner, Astrophys. J. 138, 1314 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

J. Stebbins, G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aller, L. H.

L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, K. A.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bahner, K.

K. Bahner, Astrophys. J. 138, 1314 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Blifford, I. H.

Breger, M.

R. Schild, unpublished measurements reproduced in M. Breger, Communications in Astronomy, No. 1 (SUNY, Stony Brook, 1971).

Chodil, G.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, D. J.

L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, R. C.

Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, R. C. Hahn, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 45–51.
[CrossRef]

Hayes, D. S.

D. S. Hayes, D. W. Latham, Astrophys. J. 197, 593 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hearn, D.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Herbison-Evans, D.

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

Iriarte, B.

H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).

Johnson, F. S.

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, H. L.

R. I. Mitchell, H. L. Johnson, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 32 (U. Arizona, 1969).

H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).

Johnston, I. D.

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

Jopson, R. C.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Kron, G. E.

J. Stebbins, G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Latham, D. W.

D. S. Hayes, D. W. Latham, Astrophys. J. 197, 593 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lomb, N. R.

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

Mark, H.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Mercer, R. D.

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).

Mitchell, R. I.

R. I. Mitchell, H. L. Johnson, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 32 (U. Arizona, 1969).

H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).

Neckel, H.

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Norton, R. H.

L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Oke, J. B.

J. B. Oke, in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, L. Goldberg, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, Calif., 1965), Vol. 3, pp. 23–46.
[CrossRef]

Schild, R.

R. Schild, unpublished measurements reproduced in M. Breger, Communications in Astronomy, No. 1 (SUNY, Stony Brook, 1971).

Schuerman, D. W.

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contractor Report CR-2759 (SUNY—Albany, 1976).

Shobbrook, R. R.

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

Sparrow, J. G.

Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 41–44.
[CrossRef]

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, R. C. Hahn, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 45–51.
[CrossRef]

Stebbins, J.

J. Stebbins, G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Swift, C. D.

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, J. L.

Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).

J. L. Weinberg, Appl. Opt. 3, 1057 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, R. C. Hahn, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 45–51.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contractor Report CR-2759 (SUNY—Albany, 1976).

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 41–44.
[CrossRef]

Wisniewski, W. Z.

H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).

Young, A. T.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (4)

D. S. Hayes, D. W. Latham, Astrophys. J. 197, 593 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Bahner, Astrophys. J. 138, 1314 (1963).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Aller, D. J. Faulkner, R. H. Norton, Astrophys. J. 144, 1073 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Stebbins, G. E. Kron, Astrophys. J. 126, 266 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. L. Weinberg, R. D. Mercer, R. C. Hahn, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 6, 337 (1974).

J. Meteorol. (1)

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

R. R. Shobbrook, D. Herbison-Evans, I. D. Johnston, N. R. Lomb, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 131 (1969).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Chodil, D. Hearn, R. C. Jopson, H. Mark, C. D. Swift, K. A. Anderson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 394 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (1)

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

Other aspects of the experiment and a more complete description of the instrument are given by J. L. Weinberg, J. G. Sparrow, R. C. Hahn. Space Sci. Instrum. 1, 138 (1975).

Other (9)

The backup instrument canister was modified and carried aloft by the SL-2 crew to deploy a parasol out the solar scientific airlock to reduce the high workshop temperature due to loss of the meteoroid shield during launch.

Equivalent number of tenth magnitude solar (G2V) stars per square degree at mean solar distance.

J. B. Oke, in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, L. Goldberg, Ed. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, Calif., 1965), Vol. 3, pp. 23–46.
[CrossRef]

R. Schild, unpublished measurements reproduced in M. Breger, Communications in Astronomy, No. 1 (SUNY, Stony Brook, 1971).

H. L. Johnson, R. I. Mitchell, B. Iriarte, W. Z. Wisniewski, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 63 (U. Arizona, 1966).

R. I. Mitchell, H. L. Johnson, Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 32 (U. Arizona, 1969).

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 41–44.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Schuerman, J. L. Weinberg, “Preliminary Study of Contaminant Particulates Around Skylab,” NASA Contractor Report CR-2759 (SUNY—Albany, 1976).

J. G. Sparrow, J. L. Weinberg, R. C. Hahn, in Lecture Notes in Physics, Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 31 (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1976), No. 48, pp. 45–51.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experiment canister and universal extension mechanism/mounting facility. The canister and attached panels contain power supplies, automatic and manual control equipment, and the extension mechanism/alt-azimuth mounting (shown here fully extended).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The photometer and camera attached to the extension mechanism/alt-azimuth mounting.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the photometer optical train.

Tables (1)

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Table I Interference Filter Characteristicsa and Aperture/ND Filter Combinations

Equations (1)

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PMT output = A + B t + C sin ( ω t + D ) ,

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