Abstract

The XUV spectroheliograph, Apollo Telescope Mount experiment S082A, is described. The instrument was a slitless Wadsworth grating spectrograph that employed photographic recording. The grating was of 4-m radius, ruled with 3600 grooves/mm. By rotating the grating to positions where the normal was at 255 Å or 400 Å, the spectral ranges 175–335 Å and 320–480 Å, respectively, were covered with 2-sec of arc spatial resolution. Close to the normal the resolution reached 2 sec of arc, but at the extreme limit, 630 Å, it was 10 sec of arc or worse. The aberrations of the instrument are discussed in detail as are the provisions necessary to maintain optimum imagery and reliability in a space environment. During the mission about 1020 exposures were made covering 171–335 Å or 320–630 Å.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. K. Prinz, Solar Phys. 28, 35 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).
  5. P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28, 833 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Onaka, Sci. Light 7, 23 (1958).
  7. G. E. Brueckner, J.-D. F. Bartoe, Solar Phys. 38, 133 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. Michels, T. L. Mikes, W. R. Hunter, Appl. Opt. 13, 1223 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).
  10. Cf. H. Zirin, The Solar Atmosphere (Blaisdell, Waltham, Mass., 1966), p. 406.
  11. G. E. Brueckner, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 443 (1976); R. Tousey, at International Conference on X-Rays in Space, The University of Calgary, 14–21 August 1974, pp. 472–488 (published April1975).; K. G. Widing, C. C. Cheng, Astrophys. J. Lett. 194, L111 (1974); K. G. Widing, Int. Astron. Union Symposium No. 68, S. R. Kane, Ed. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1975), p. 153; K. G. Widing, J. D. Purcell, Astrophys. J. Lett. 204, L151 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Tousey, Astrophys. Space Sci 38, 327 (1975); R. Tousey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 359 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. E. Brueckner, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 443 (1976); R. Tousey, at International Conference on X-Rays in Space, The University of Calgary, 14–21 August 1974, pp. 472–488 (published April1975).; K. G. Widing, C. C. Cheng, Astrophys. J. Lett. 194, L111 (1974); K. G. Widing, Int. Astron. Union Symposium No. 68, S. R. Kane, Ed. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1975), p. 153; K. G. Widing, J. D. Purcell, Astrophys. J. Lett. 204, L151 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Tousey, Astrophys. Space Sci 38, 327 (1975); R. Tousey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 359 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

1973 (2)

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

D. K. Prinz, Solar Phys. 28, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).

1959 (1)

J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

R. Onaka, Sci. Light 7, 23 (1958).

1957 (1)

P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28, 833 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Bartoe, J.-D. F.

G. E. Brueckner, J.-D. F. Bartoe, Solar Phys. 38, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Bohlin, J. D.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Brueckner, G. E.

G. E. Brueckner, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 443 (1976); R. Tousey, at International Conference on X-Rays in Space, The University of Calgary, 14–21 August 1974, pp. 472–488 (published April1975).; K. G. Widing, C. C. Cheng, Astrophys. J. Lett. 194, L111 (1974); K. G. Widing, Int. Astron. Union Symposium No. 68, S. R. Kane, Ed. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1975), p. 153; K. G. Widing, J. D. Purcell, Astrophys. J. Lett. 204, L151 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Brueckner, J.-D. F. Bartoe, Solar Phys. 38, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Garrett, D. L.

D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).

Hunter, W. R.

Johnson, P. D.

P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28, 833 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Mercure, R.

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Michels, D. J.

Mikes, T. L.

Miller, S. C.

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, R.

R. Onaka, Sci. Light 7, 23 (1958).

Packer, D. M.

J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Prinz, D. K.

D. K. Prinz, Solar Phys. 28, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, J. D.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).

J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rense, W. A.

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Scherrer, V. E.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Schumacher, R. J.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Sheeley, N. R.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Stuart, F. J.

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Tousey, R.

R. Tousey, Astrophys. Space Sci 38, 327 (1975); R. Tousey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 359 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).

J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Van Hoosier, M. E.

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

Zirin, Cf. H.

Cf. H. Zirin, The Solar Atmosphere (Blaisdell, Waltham, Mass., 1966), p. 406.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. J. (1)

D. L. Garrett, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147, (1964); R. Tousey, W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, K. G. Widing, Ann. Astrophys. 28, 755 (1965).

Astrophys. Space Sci (1)

R. Tousey, Astrophys. Space Sci 38, 327 (1975); R. Tousey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 359 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. Mercure, S. C. Miller, W. A. Rense, F. J. Stuart, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 573 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. D. Purcell, D. M. Packer, R. Tousey, Nature 184, 8 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

G. E. Brueckner, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 281, 443 (1976); R. Tousey, at International Conference on X-Rays in Space, The University of Calgary, 14–21 August 1974, pp. 472–488 (published April1975).; K. G. Widing, C. C. Cheng, Astrophys. J. Lett. 194, L111 (1974); K. G. Widing, Int. Astron. Union Symposium No. 68, S. R. Kane, Ed. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1975), p. 153; K. G. Widing, J. D. Purcell, Astrophys. J. Lett. 204, L151 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. D. Johnson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28, 833 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Light (1)

R. Onaka, Sci. Light 7, 23 (1958).

Solar Phys. (3)

G. E. Brueckner, J.-D. F. Bartoe, Solar Phys. 38, 133 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. Tousey, J.-D. F. Bartoe, J. D. Bohlin, G. E. Brueckner, J. D. Purcell, V. E. Scherrer, N. R. Sheeley, R. J. Schumacher, M. E. Van Hoosier, Solar Phys. 33, 265 (1973).

D. K. Prinz, Solar Phys. 28, 35 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Cf. H. Zirin, The Solar Atmosphere (Blaisdell, Waltham, Mass., 1966), p. 406.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An optical diagram of the NRL XUV spectroheliograph. It comprised a concave grating, a thin aluminum filter, and photographic film arranged in a Wadsworth mounting. In the version for Skylab-ATM a diode-flasher matrix was added to record exposure and other data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curves showing as a function of wavelength the efficiency of the spectroheliograph, the grating reflectance, and the filter transmittance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A section of a spectroheliogram photographed on 20 September 1963 at 1745 UT. Prominent are He ii 304 Å, Fe xvi 335 Å and 361 Å, and Mg ix 368 Å. The fog at the right edge was produced by a pinhole in the Al filter. The central active region shows faintly in Fe xv 284 Å just above the left edge of He ii.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A schematic of the Skylab spectroheliograph showing the radiation rejection system set up in the short wavelength position. When the grating was rotated into the long wavelength position, the short wavelength rejection mirror was tipped down, exposing the long wavelength mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A schematic showing the locations of the most intense solar images: long wavelength position, above; short wavelength position, below. The positions of the grating normal are indicated, together with the ±80-Å ranges over which 2–3-sec of arc resolution was achieved.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Curves showing the spatial resolution characteristics of the ATM spectroheliograph in the short and long wavelength modes. The respective positions of the normal are indicated by N. The curves are averages taken from laboratory tests using a high contrast barred target.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A schematic of the camera and shutter for the spectroheliograph and sequential steps in the film changing operation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images to show the effect of focused stray light. They were produced by the spectroheliograph when tested in the laboratory using a free-flow helium discharge tube and USAF 1971 test target. The upper two images were made in the long and short wavelength modes with an inferior grating. The lower two, also in the long and short modes, were made with the flight grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A section of a spectroheliogram photographed with So-82A on 15 June 1973 during the early stage of an M-2 flare. The image at the right is of He ii 304 Å; at the left and overlapping He ii by ¼ solar diameter is the image in Fe xv, 284 Å. North is to the left, and east is up.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Images of the 15 June 1973 flare enlarged 4.5× relative to Fig. 9. The upper group was from a 2-sec exposure made just before the 10-sec exposure shown in Fig. 9, while the lower group was from the next 2-sec exposure, made 3 min after the other. The image to the right is of the flare in Fe xv 284 Å. The similar image at the left is of the flare in He ii 256 Å, second line of the series whose first line is shown in Fig. 9. At the far left is the image of the flare in Fexxiv 255 Å.

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