Abstract

This paper describes the S056 x-ray instrument which was carried aboard the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount as part of the solar instrument cluster. The instrument, which was built at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, consisted of a glancing incidence x-ray telescope to record solar images in the 6–40-Å region, together with an x-ray event analyzer to monitor the total solar soft x-ray flux in several wavelength bands. The x-ray telescope used film as a recording medium and thin foil filters to isolate specific wavelength bands. The instrument subsystems are described in detail and typical results presented.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).
  2. A. B. C. Walker, Space Sci. Rev. 13, 672 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Underwood, W. S. Muney, Solar Phys. 1, 129 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. D. Mangus, J. H. Underwood, Appl. Opt. 8, 95 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Underwood, W. M. Neupert, R. B. Hoover, in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 41: New Techniques in Space Astronomy, F. Labuhn, R. Lüst, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1971), p. 192.
  6. A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 20, 84 (1922).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kallmann, H. Mark, Ann. Phys. 82, 385 (1927).
  8. L. G. Parratt, C. F. Hempstead, Phys. Rev. 94, 1593 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. Stewardson, J. H. Underwood, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1877 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).
  11. H. Wolter, Ann. dev Phys. 6, 94, 286 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Tillen, in Advances in Optical Technology and Electro-Optical Systems for Space: Proceedings of the Perkin-Elmer Tenth Annual Technical Symposium (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn., 1969).
  14. E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).
  15. R. B. Hoover, R. S. Wriston, J. F. Froechtenight, in Proceedings of X-Ray Optics Symposium held at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, P. W. Sanford, Ed. (University College, London, 1973), pp. 137–162.
  16. J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).
  17. J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

1972 (1)

A. B. C. Walker, Space Sci. Rev. 13, 672 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1967 (2)

J. H. Underwood, W. S. Muney, Solar Phys. 1, 129 (1967).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

1965 (2)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Stewardson, J. H. Underwood, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1877 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

L. G. Parratt, C. F. Hempstead, Phys. Rev. 94, 1593 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. dev Phys. 6, 94, 286 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1927 (1)

H. Kallmann, H. Mark, Ann. Phys. 82, 385 (1927).

1922 (1)

A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 20, 84 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Brytov, I. A.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Burke, H. O.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Chapman, G. A.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Cofield, K. L.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Compton, A. H.

A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 20, 84 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. J.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

deLoach, A. C.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Douglas, J. D.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Ershov, O. A.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Froechtenight, J. F.

R. B. Hoover, R. S. Wriston, J. F. Froechtenight, in Proceedings of X-Ray Optics Symposium held at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, P. W. Sanford, Ed. (University College, London, 1973), pp. 137–162.

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, E. G.

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, C. F.

L. G. Parratt, C. F. Hempstead, Phys. Rev. 94, 1593 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, R. B.

R. B. Hoover, R. S. Wriston, J. F. Froechtenight, in Proceedings of X-Ray Optics Symposium held at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, P. W. Sanford, Ed. (University College, London, 1973), pp. 137–162.

J. H. Underwood, W. M. Neupert, R. B. Hoover, in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 41: New Techniques in Space Astronomy, F. Labuhn, R. Lüst, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1971), p. 192.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Janssens, T. J.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Kallmann, H.

H. Kallmann, H. Mark, Ann. Phys. 82, 385 (1927).

Krieger, A. S.

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Landecker, P. B.

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Lewter, B. J.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Lindsay, J. C.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lukirskii, A. P.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Mangus, J. D.

Mark, H.

H. Kallmann, H. Mark, Ann. Phys. 82, 385 (1927).

Mayfield, E. B.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

McGuire, J. G.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

McKenzie, D. L.

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Miller, G. M.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Milligan, J. E.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Muney, W. S.

J. H. Underwood, W. S. Muney, Solar Phys. 1, 129 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Neupert, W. M.

J. H. Underwood, W. M. Neupert, R. B. Hoover, in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 41: New Techniques in Space Astronomy, F. Labuhn, R. Lüst, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1971), p. 192.

Parratt, L. G.

L. G. Parratt, C. F. Hempstead, Phys. Rev. 94, 1593 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Petrasso, R.

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Reidy, W. P.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Silk, J. K.

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Sokolowski, T. I.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Stewardson, E. A.

E. A. Stewardson, J. H. Underwood, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1877 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tillen, R. J.

R. J. Tillen, in Advances in Optical Technology and Electro-Optical Systems for Space: Proceedings of the Perkin-Elmer Tenth Annual Technical Symposium (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn., 1969).

Timothy, A. F.

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Underwood, J. H.

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mangus, J. H. Underwood, Appl. Opt. 8, 95 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Underwood, W. S. Muney, Solar Phys. 1, 129 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Stewardson, J. H. Underwood, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1877 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

J. H. Underwood, W. M. Neupert, R. B. Hoover, in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 41: New Techniques in Space Astronomy, F. Labuhn, R. Lüst, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1971), p. 192.

Vaiana, G. S.

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Vorpahl, J. A.

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Walker, A. B. C.

A. B. C. Walker, Space Sci. Rev. 13, 672 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Walsh, E. J.

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

Wilson, R. M.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

Wolter, H.

H. Wolter, Ann. dev Phys. 6, 94, 286 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wriston, R. S.

R. B. Hoover, R. S. Wriston, J. F. Froechtenight, in Proceedings of X-Ray Optics Symposium held at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, P. W. Sanford, Ed. (University College, London, 1973), pp. 137–162.

Zehnpfennig, T.

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ann. dev Phys. (1)

H. Wolter, Ann. dev Phys. 6, 94, 286 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

H. Kallmann, H. Mark, Ann. Phys. 82, 385 (1927).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. Giacconi, W. P. Reidy, T. Zehnpfennig, J. C. Lindsay, W. S. Muney, Astrophys. J. 142, 1274 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. A. Stewardson, J. H. Underwood, Br. J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1877 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Phys. Rev. (2)

L. G. Parratt, C. F. Hempstead, Phys. Rev. 94, 1593 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Compton, Phys. Rev. 20, 84 (1922).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

E. J. Walsh, T. I. Sokolowski, G. M. Miller, K. L. Cofield, J. D. Douglas, B. J. Lewter, H. O. Burke, A. J. Davis, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 175 (1974).

G. S. Vaiana, A. S. Krieger, R. Petrasso, J. K. Silk, A. F. Timothy, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 44, 185 (1974).

Solar Phys. (2)

J. A. Vorpahl, E. G. Gibson, P. B. Landecker, D. L. McKenzie, J. H. Underwood, Solar Phys. 45, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, W. S. Muney, Solar Phys. 1, 129 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

A. B. C. Walker, Space Sci. Rev. 13, 672 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. B. Hoover, R. S. Wriston, J. F. Froechtenight, in Proceedings of X-Ray Optics Symposium held at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, P. W. Sanford, Ed. (University College, London, 1973), pp. 137–162.

J. H. Underwood, G. A. Chapman, T. J. Janssens, P. B. Landecker, E. B. Mayfield, D. L. McKenzie, J. A. Vorpahl, A. B. C. Walker, J. E. Milligan, A. C. deLoach, R. B. Hoover, J. G. McGuire, R. M. Wilson in Proceedings of AIAA Conference on Scientific Results of Skylab, Huntsville, Alabama, October 1974, S. T. Wu, Ed. (AIAA, New York, 1974).

J. H. Underwood, W. M. Neupert, R. B. Hoover, in Proceedings of IAU Symposium 41: New Techniques in Space Astronomy, F. Labuhn, R. Lüst, Eds. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1971), p. 192.

R. J. Tillen, in Advances in Optical Technology and Electro-Optical Systems for Space: Proceedings of the Perkin-Elmer Tenth Annual Technical Symposium (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, Conn., 1969).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cutaway drawing of the S056 x-ray telescope. X-REA: x-ray event analyzer; C/TCE: camera and thermal control electronics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical curves for the reflection of soft x rays at glancing incidence computed from the Fresnel Eq. (4) for various values of the absorption parameter Y.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectivity of two mirror materials at, a glancing angle of 0.916°. The curves are computed using the Kallman-Mark theory, while the experimental points for fused silica are taken from Refs. 9 (circles) and 10 (triangles).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of Wolter type 1 x-ray telescope used in the S056 instrument. The angles of glancing incidence have been exaggerated for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

D vs LogE curve for SO-212 film in the x-ray region. In addition to the two wavelengths listed in the figure measurements were also made at 9.89 Å (MgK), 13.3 Å (CuL), and 16.0 Å (CoL). The curves obtained were, within experimental error, identical to the one drawn here.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

S056 film magazine and camera cut away to show the internal components.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission of the filters used in the S056 experiment: (a) filters 1 and 2; (b) filters 3, 4, and 5; (c) filter 3 at wavelengths longer than the TiL edge.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

S056 section of ATM control and display panel.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Point spread function of the telescope at the center of the field of view.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

X-ray photograph of the sun taken on 21 January 1974 at 1723 UT. This is a 8-min exposure taken using filter 2. North is at the top of the picture in Figs. 1012.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fifteen-minute exposure (filter 2) taken on 28 January 1974 at 1206 UT during a period of low solar activity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Series of exposures taken using filter 2 showing the evolution of active region structure during June 1973. All exposures are 96 sec except for that at 1756 UT on 16 June, which is a 30-sec exposure.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Development of a loop on the west limb on 1 January 1974. Top: 6-min 24-sec exposure taken starting at 2053 UT. Bottom: 8-min 13-sec exposure taken starting at 2100 UT. Filter 2 was used for both. North is to the left.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I X-Ray Telescope Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II S056 Filter Characteristics

Tables Icon

Table III Nominal Exposure Times for 5056 X-Ray Photographs, in Seconds

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

cos θ c = n = 1 - Δ ,
θ c = ( 2 Δ ) 1 / 2 .
n = 1 - Δ - i β .
R = ( 2 1 / 2 X - { [ ( X 2 - 1 ) 2 + Y 2 ] 1 / 2 + ( X 2 - 1 } 1 / 2 ) 2 + [ ( X 2 - 1 ) 2 + Y 2 ] 1 / 2 - ( X 2 - 1 ) ( 2 1 / 2 X + { [ ( X 2 - 1 ) 2 + Y 2 ] 1 / 2 + ( X 2 - 1 } 1 / 2 ) 2 + [ ( X 2 - 1 ) 2 + Y 2 ] 1 / 2 - ( X 2 - 1 ) ,
β = μ l λ / 4 π ,
Δ = e 2 2 π m c 2 j n j 1 / λ 2 - 1 / λ j 2 ,
Δ = n e 2 λ 2 / 2 π m c 2 ,
δ = 2 h sin θ .

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