Abstract

Refractive indexes of the (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 system are determined by minimum deviation for eight ceramic compounds over the 400–750-nm wavelength range and for two compounds over the 25–150°C temperature range. The index of one compound (10/65/35) is reported to 2600 nm. Ellipsometric measurements show the presence of a low-index surface layer on these ceramics. Such layers, whose origin is not determined, have influenced previous index measurements based on reflection techniques.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, G. H. Haertling, in Applied Solid State Science, R. Wolfe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 4, p. 137.
  2. Proceedings of the 1975 IEEE Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Ferroelectrics 10 and 11 (1, 2) (1976).
  3. J. T. Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, Appl. Opt. 14, 1866 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. D. Thacher, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4790 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, in The Physics of Opto-Electronic Materials, W. A. Albers, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), p. 169.
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. J. Kirkby, Ferroelectrics 7, 157 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. E. Krumin, A. R. Sternberg, A. A. Sprogis, in Scientific Annals of the Latvian State University: Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Solid Solutions, V. Ya. Fritsberg, Ed. (Latvian State University, Riga, 1975), Vol. 235, p. 171 (in Russian).
  8. J. A. Zvirgzd, Phys. Status Solidi A: 32, K181 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Burns, B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 13, 423 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. L. English, Sandia Labs; private communication.
  11. S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. T. Cutchen, G. H. Haertling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 225 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 751 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).
  17. P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-16, 515 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, Phys. Rev. B 3, 1338 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1969).
  21. K. Vedam, M. Malin, Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1503 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Northrop, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 50, 441 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Jona, G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (MacMillan, New York, 1962), p. 181ff.

1976 (1)

Proceedings of the 1975 IEEE Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Ferroelectrics 10 and 11 (1, 2) (1976).

1975 (2)

1974 (2)

C. J. Kirkby, Ferroelectrics 7, 157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Vedam, M. Malin, Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

G. Burns, B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 13, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cutchen, G. H. Haertling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 225 (1973).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, Phys. Rev. B 3, 1338 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

P. D. Thacher, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 751 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-16, 515 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. A. Northrop, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 50, 441 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ainger, F. W.

F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, D.

F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

Burns, G.

G. Burns, B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 13, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cutchen, J. T.

J. T. Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, Appl. Opt. 14, 1866 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cutchen, G. H. Haertling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 225 (1973).
[CrossRef]

DiDomenico, M.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, Phys. Rev. B 3, 1338 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

English, F. L.

F. L. English, Sandia Labs; private communication.

Haertling, G. H.

J. T. Cutchen, G. H. Haertling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 225 (1973).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, G. H. Haertling, in Applied Solid State Science, R. Wolfe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 4, p. 137.

Harris, J. O.

Jona, F.

F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
[CrossRef]

F. Jona, G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (MacMillan, New York, 1962), p. 181ff.

Kirkby, C. J.

C. J. Kirkby, Ferroelectrics 7, 157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Krumin, A. E.

A. E. Krumin, A. R. Sternberg, A. A. Sprogis, in Scientific Annals of the Latvian State University: Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Solid Solutions, V. Ya. Fritsberg, Ed. (Latvian State University, Riga, 1975), Vol. 235, p. 171 (in Russian).

Laguna, G. R.

Land, C. E.

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 751 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-16, 515 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, G. H. Haertling, in Applied Solid State Science, R. Wolfe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 4, p. 137.

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, in The Physics of Opto-Electronic Materials, W. A. Albers, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), p. 169.
[CrossRef]

Malin, M.

K. Vedam, M. Malin, Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Northrop, D. A.

D. A. Northrop, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 50, 441 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Pepinsky, R.

F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Potopowicz, J. R.

S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Remeika, J. P.

S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

G. Burns, B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 13, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shirane, G.

F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
[CrossRef]

F. Jona, G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (MacMillan, New York, 1962), p. 181ff.

Singh, S.

S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sprogis, A. A.

A. E. Krumin, A. R. Sternberg, A. A. Sprogis, in Scientific Annals of the Latvian State University: Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Solid Solutions, V. Ya. Fritsberg, Ed. (Latvian State University, Riga, 1975), Vol. 235, p. 171 (in Russian).

Sternberg, A. R.

A. E. Krumin, A. R. Sternberg, A. A. Sprogis, in Scientific Annals of the Latvian State University: Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Solid Solutions, V. Ya. Fritsberg, Ed. (Latvian State University, Riga, 1975), Vol. 235, p. 171 (in Russian).

Thacher, P. D.

P. D. Thacher, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-16, 515 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 751 (1969).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, in The Physics of Opto-Electronic Materials, W. A. Albers, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), p. 169.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, G. H. Haertling, in Applied Solid State Science, R. Wolfe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 4, p. 137.

Vedam, K.

K. Vedam, M. Malin, Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, Phys. Rev. B 3, 1338 (1971).
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

Zvirgzd, J. A.

J. A. Zvirgzd, Phys. Status Solidi A: 32, K181 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Singh, J. P. Remeika, J. R. Potopowicz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 135 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

C. J. Kirkby, Ferroelectrics 7, 157 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-16, 515 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

J. T. Cutchen, G. H. Haertling, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 56, 225 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Northrop, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 50, 441 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Thacher, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4790 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

F. W. Ainger, D. Appleby, C. J. Kirkby, J. Mater. Sci. 8, 1825 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

K. Vedam, M. Malin, Mater. Res. Bull. 9, 1503 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. Jona, G. Shirane, R. Pepinsky, Phys. Rev. 19, 1584 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. H. Wemple, M. DiDomenico, Phys. Rev. B 3, 1338 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. A. Zvirgzd, Phys. Status Solidi A: 32, K181 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 751 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the 1975 IEEE Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics (1)

Proceedings of the 1975 IEEE Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Ferroelectrics 10 and 11 (1, 2) (1976).

Solid State Commun. (1)

G. Burns, B. A. Scott, Solid State Commun. 13, 423 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

F. L. English, Sandia Labs; private communication.

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, in The Physics of Opto-Electronic Materials, W. A. Albers, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1971), p. 169.
[CrossRef]

A. E. Krumin, A. R. Sternberg, A. A. Sprogis, in Scientific Annals of the Latvian State University: Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Solid Solutions, V. Ya. Fritsberg, Ed. (Latvian State University, Riga, 1975), Vol. 235, p. 171 (in Russian).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).

F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1969).

F. Jona, G. Shirane, Ferroelectric Crystals (MacMillan, New York, 1962), p. 181ff.

C. E. Land, P. D. Thacher, G. H. Haertling, in Applied Solid State Science, R. Wolfe, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1974), Vol. 4, p. 137.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index at 633 nm for various ceramic compounds in the (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 system. Numbers by the points give the percent of La substituted for Pb. The open circle is calculated from Ref. 11, and × is taken from Ref. 9.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of 10/65/35 as a function of wavelength. Open circles are from Ref. 7 and open triangles from Ref. 6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots used to obtain Sellmeier oscillator parameters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index of 10/65/35 as a function of wavelength: curve A is measured by minimum deviation in a prism; curve B by ellipsometry off one prism face; and curve C by ellipsometry off the other face. Closed triangles are reduced from reflectance measurements in Ref. 7.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Refractive Index vs Composition for Various (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 Compounds

Tables Icon

Table II Temperature Dependence of the Refractive Index

Tables Icon

Table III Refractive Index of 10/65/35

Tables Icon

Table IV Sellmeier Oscillator Parameters

Tables Icon

Table V Photochromic Effects on the Refractive Index of 8/10/90

Equations (2)

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C ( n / λ ) = N + x ,
n 2 - 1 = S o λ o 2 ( 1 - λ o 2 / λ 2 ) - 1 = E d E o ( E o 2 - E 2 ) - 1 ,

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