Abstract

10.6-μm ellipsometric measurements, using a modulated light ellipsometer, are reported for the refractive indices of KCl, CdTe, and ZnSe crystals and for ZnSe and ThF4 films.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1380 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. O’Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969).
  9. M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–38.
  12. J. E. Rudisill, M. Braunstein, A. I. Braunstein, Appl. Opt. 13, 2075 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (3)

E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (2)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. C. O’Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1964 (1)

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. D.

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

Azam, R. M. A.

A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bashara, N. M.

A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1380 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, A. I.

J. E. Rudisill, M. Braunstein, A. I. Braunstein, Appl. Opt. 13, 2075 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

Braunstein, M.

J. E. Rudisill, M. Braunstein, A. I. Braunstein, Appl. Opt. 13, 2075 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

Burge, D. K.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. C.

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lluesma, E. G.

E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lukes, F.

M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T. F.

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

McCrackin, F. L.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969).

Nafie, L. A.

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

O’Handley, R. C.

R. C. O’Handley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 523 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ohlidal, I.

M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ohlidal, M.

M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pasaglia, E.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Pela, C. A.

E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rudisill, J. E.

Steinberg, H.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stromberg, R. R.

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wilmann, I.

E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zaghoul, A. R. M.

A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A (1)

F. L. McCrackin, E. Pasaglia, R. R. Stromberg, H. Steinberg, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sec. A 67, 363 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (4)

A. R. M. Zaghoul, R. M. A. Azam, N. M. Bashara, Surf. Sci. 56, 87 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Lluesma, C. A. Pela, I. Wilmann, Surf. Sci. 56, 189 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohlidal, I. Ohlidal, F. Lukes, Surf. Sci. 55, 467 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. D. Allen, A. I. Braunstein, M. Braunstein, J. C. Cheng, L. A. Nafie, “A 10.6 Micron Modulated Light Ellipsometer,” in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), pp. 503–513.
[CrossRef]

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–38.

F. L. McCrackin, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 479 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic diagram of the modulated light ellipsometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the ellipsometer signal processing system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the ellipsometer sample half-angle drive.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fractional variation of N with fractional variation of R2 as a function of angle ϕ, with N = 1.5 at several modulator drive values.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional variation of N with fractional variation of R2 as a function of angle ϕ, with N = 2.5 at several modulator drive values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional variation of N with fractional variation of R2 as a function of angle ϕ, with N = 4 at several modulator drive values.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fractional variation of N with fractional variation of R2 vs angle plotted for N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0 at maximum modulator drive X = 2.4.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Plot of the magnitude of R2 vs ϕ for N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0 at modulator drive X = 0.7.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Plot of the magnitude of R2 vs ϕ for N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4.0 at modulator drive X = 2.4.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Plot of the magnitude of R2 vs the deviation from the Brewster angle for N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4 and a modulator drive ratio X = 2.4.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fractional index error ΔN/N due to 0.1° sample alignment error for index N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4 at low modulator drive X = 0.7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fractional index error ΔN/N due to 0.1° sample alignment error for index N = 1.5, 2.5, and 4 at high modulator drive X = 2.4.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fractional index error ΔN/N due to 0.1° and 0.5° sample alignment errors with low modulator drive X = 0.7.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Typical variation of N with ϕ for 1% error in R1 or R2 for the film index NF = 2.4, the substrate index NS = 1.455, and the film thickness T = λ/4.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Fractional variation of refractive index with angle ϕ for sample alignment error Δϕ = 0.1°.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Measured Substrate Index Data

Tables Icon

Table II Measured Film Index Data

Equations (7)

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V dc = ¼ [ E 0 2 R 2 + E 0 2 R - 2 E 0 2 R R cos Δ J 0 ( x ) ] ,
V 2 ω = ¼ [ - 4 E 0 2 R R cos Δ J 2 ( x ) ] ,
V ω = ¼ [ 4 E 0 2 R R sin Δ J 1 ( x ) ] ,
sin 2 ψ = R 2 R 2 cos Δ J 0 ( x ) - 2 J 2 ( x ) ,
tan Δ = - R 1 J 2 ( x ) J 1 ( x ) .
N 2 = sin 2 ϕ [ tan 2 ϕ cos 2 2 ψ ( 1 + sin 2 ψ ) 2 + 1 ] ,
N = tan ϕ [ 1 - 4 tan ψ sin 2 ϕ ( tan ψ + 1 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,

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