Abstract

A review is given of several newly developed methods for measuring low absorption losses in optical materials. Transmission, emittance, and calorimetric techniques are described with special emphasis on how thermocouple and photoacoustic calorimetry can be used to determine both bulk and surface absorption simultaneously. The advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches are discussed, and estimates are given of the sensitivities that can be achieved with the different techniques. Finally, a new ac interferometric calorimetric method for measuring low bulk losses is proposed.

© 1977 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Skolnik, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 405.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. F. Deutsch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 2091 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1967).
  4. S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. P. Weber, F. A. Dunn, Appl. Opt. 12, 755 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Krause, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 483.
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Heitmann, Appl. Opt. 14, 3047 (1975); Appl. Opt. 15, 256 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2112 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Hjortsberg, W. P. Chen, E. Burstein, in Digest of Technical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  12. R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, J. W. Gibson, in Ref. 11.
  13. W. P. Chen, A. Hjortsberg, E. Burstein, in Ref. 11.
  14. G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., NBS Special Publication 462 (Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D.C., 1976), p. 246.
  16. T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 942 (1969).
  17. O. S. Heavens, S. K. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 17, 339 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Stierwalt, T. B. Bernstein, D. D. Kirk, Appl. Opt. 2, 1169 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. L. Stierwalt, Appl. Opt. 5, 1911 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. H. Skolnik, “Spectral Emittance Measurements on Some Laser Window Materials,” AFCRL-TR-74-0590 (1974).
  21. D. L. Stierwalt, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds. NBS Special Publication 435 (1976), p. 148.
  22. L. Hobrock, Hughes Aircraft; private communication.
  23. L. Skolnik, A. Kahan, Rome Air Development Center; private communication.
  24. P. Morse, J. R. Engel, “Cryogenic Emittance Spectrometer,” RADC-TR-76-126 (1976).
  25. J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Rockwell, J. H. Parks, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4213 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, Appl. Opt. 12, 984 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Hass, J. W. Davisson, H. B. Rosenstock, J. Babiskin, Appl. Opt. 14, 1128 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. Bernal G, Appl. Opt. 14, 314 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. I. White, J. E. Midwinter, Opto-Electronics 5, 323 (1973); in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 461.
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. I. White, Opt. Quant. Elect. 8, 73 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. F. Deutsch, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 663 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. B. Rosenstock, D. A. Gregory, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 15, 2075 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. B. Rosenstock, M. Hass, D. A. Gregory, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 16, 2837 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. A. Harrington, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, Appl. Opt. 16, 2893 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. S. Loomis, Appl. Opt. 12, 877 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. E. K. Gibbs, A. W. Butterfield, Appl. Opt. 14, 3043 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Sparks, in Ref. 15, p. 203.
  39. A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880); Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).
  40. L. K. Kreuzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Phys. Today 28 (9), 23 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  43. E. L. Kerr, Appl. Opt. 12, 2520 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. J. G. Parker, Appl. Opt. 12, 2974 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, Appl. Opt. 14, 3031 (1975); Appl. Opt. 15, 347, 1313, 2405 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1165 (1975); Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  47. A. Hordvik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1105 (1976).
  48. H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  49. A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik, Appl. Opt. 16, 2919 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik in Proceedings of the AFSC 1972 Science and Engineering Symposium, San Antonio, Texas. AFSC Publication AFSC-TR-72-005 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1972), Vol. 2.
  51. L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  52. E. Bernal G, Honeywell Corporate Research Center; private communication.

1977 (3)

1976 (8)

A. Hordvik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1105 (1976).

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Rosenstock, D. A. Gregory, J. A. Harrington, Appl. Opt. 15, 2075 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Barnoski, S. M. Jensen, Appl. Opt. 15, 2112 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Heavens, S. K. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 17, 339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rockwell, J. H. Parks, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4213 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. I. White, Opt. Quant. Elect. 8, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (7)

1974 (1)

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (10)

J. S. Loomis, Appl. Opt. 12, 877 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Phys. Today 28 (9), 23 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Kerr, Appl. Opt. 12, 2520 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Parker, Appl. Opt. 12, 2974 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, Appl. Opt. 12, 984 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. White, J. E. Midwinter, Opto-Electronics 5, 323 (1973); in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

T. F. Deutsch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 2091 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Weber, F. A. Dunn, Appl. Opt. 12, 755 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (2)

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Kreuzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1963 (1)

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880); Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Babiskin, J.

Barnoski, M. K.

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880); Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Bennett, H. S.

H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, Appl. Opt. 14, 3031 (1975); Appl. Opt. 15, 347, 1313, 2405 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Bernal G, E.

E. Bernal G, Appl. Opt. 14, 314 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bernal G, Honeywell Corporate Research Center; private communication.

Bernstein, T. B.

Braunstein, M.

J. A. Harrington, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, Appl. Opt. 16, 2893 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Burge, D. K.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Burstein, E.

A. Hjortsberg, W. P. Chen, E. Burstein, in Digest of Technical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

W. P. Chen, A. Hjortsberg, E. Burstein, in Ref. 11.

Butterfield, A. W.

Chen, W. P.

W. P. Chen, A. Hjortsberg, E. Burstein, in Ref. 11.

A. Hjortsberg, W. P. Chen, E. Burstein, in Digest of Technical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Colbert, T. S.

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Davisson, J. W.

Deutsch, T. F.

T. F. Deutsch, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 663 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Deutsch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 2091 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, F. A.

Engel, J. R.

P. Morse, J. R. Engel, “Cryogenic Emittance Spectrometer,” RADC-TR-76-126 (1976).

Forman, R. A.

H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, Appl. Opt. 14, 3031 (1975); Appl. Opt. 15, 347, 1313, 2405 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Gersho, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

Gibson, J. W.

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, J. W. Gibson, in Ref. 11.

Gregory, D. A.

Haas, G. A.

G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harrick, N. J.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1967).

Harrington, J. A.

Hass, M.

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, S. K. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 17, 339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

Hjortsberg, A.

A. Hjortsberg, W. P. Chen, E. Burstein, in Digest of Technical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

W. P. Chen, A. Hjortsberg, E. Burstein, in Ref. 11.

Hobrock, L.

L. Hobrock, Hughes Aircraft; private communication.

Holm, R. T.

G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., NBS Special Publication 462 (Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D.C., 1976), p. 246.

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, J. W. Gibson, in Ref. 11.

Hordvik, A.

A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik, Appl. Opt. 16, 2919 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hordvik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1105 (1976).

A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1165 (1975); Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
[PubMed]

L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik in Proceedings of the AFSC 1972 Science and Engineering Symposium, San Antonio, Texas. AFSC Publication AFSC-TR-72-005 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1972), Vol. 2.

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. M.

Kahan, A.

L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. Skolnik, A. Kahan, Rome Air Development Center; private communication.

Kerr, E. L.

Kirk, D. D.

Krause, D.

D. Krause, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 483.
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, L. K.

L. K. Kreuzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lakin, K. M.

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Loomis, J. S.

Midwinter, J. E.

K. I. White, J. E. Midwinter, Opto-Electronics 5, 323 (1973); in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Mih, D.

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Morse, P.

P. Morse, J. R. Engel, “Cryogenic Emittance Spectrometer,” RADC-TR-76-126 (1976).

O’Handley, R. C.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Oliner, A. A.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, J. W. Gibson, in Ref. 11.

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., NBS Special Publication 462 (Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D.C., 1976), p. 246.

Pankey, T.

G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. G.

Parks, J. H.

D. A. Rockwell, J. H. Parks, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4213 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pinnow, D. A.

Rich, T. C.

Rockwell, D. A.

D. A. Rockwell, J. H. Parks, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4213 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Phys. Today 28 (9), 23 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rosenstock, H. B.

Rudisill, J. E.

J. A. Harrington, M. Braunstein, J. E. Rudisill, Appl. Opt. 16, 2893 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schlossberg, H.

A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1165 (1975); Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
[PubMed]

Sharma, S. K.

O. S. Heavens, S. K. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 17, 339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Skolnik, L.

A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik, Appl. Opt. 16, 2919 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik in Proceedings of the AFSC 1972 Science and Engineering Symposium, San Antonio, Texas. AFSC Publication AFSC-TR-72-005 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1972), Vol. 2.

L. Skolnik, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 405.
[CrossRef]

L. Skolnik, A. Kahan, Rome Air Development Center; private communication.

Skolnik, L. H.

L. H. Skolnik, “Spectral Emittance Measurements on Some Laser Window Materials,” AFCRL-TR-74-0590 (1974).

Sparks, M.

M. Sparks, in Ref. 15, p. 203.

Stierwalt, D. L.

D. L. Stierwalt, Appl. Opt. 5, 1911 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Stierwalt, T. B. Bernstein, D. D. Kirk, Appl. Opt. 2, 1169 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Stierwalt, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds. NBS Special Publication 435 (1976), p. 148.

Tamir, T.

Weber, H. P.

White, K. I.

K. I. White, Opt. Quant. Elect. 8, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. I. White, J. E. Midwinter, Opto-Electronics 5, 323 (1973); in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci. (1)

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880); Philos. Mag. 11, 510 (1881).

Appl. Opt. (17)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Skolnik, A. Hordvik, A. Kahan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 477 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Parks, D. A. Rockwell, T. S. Colbert, K. M. Lakin, D. Mih, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 537 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

D. A. Rockwell, J. H. Parks, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4213 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Kreuzer, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2934 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Haas, T. Pankey, R. T. Holm, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1185 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

T. F. Deutsch, J. Electron. Mater. 4, 663 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

A. Hordvik, H. Schlossberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 1165 (1975); Appl. Opt. 16, 101 (1977).
[PubMed]

A. Hordvik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 1105 (1976).

T. Tamir, A. A. Oliner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 942 (1969).

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

T. F. Deutsch, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 34, 2091 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

O. S. Heavens, S. K. Sharma, Opt. Commun. 17, 339 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Phys. Today 28 (9), 23 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quant. Elect. (1)

K. I. White, Opt. Quant. Elect. 8, 73 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opto-Electronics (1)

K. I. White, J. E. Midwinter, Opto-Electronics 5, 323 (1973); in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 461.
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (2)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

E. Kretschmann, Z. Phys. 241, 313 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Interscience, New York, 1967).

A. Hjortsberg, W. P. Chen, E. Burstein, in Digest of Technical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, J. W. Gibson, in Ref. 11.

W. P. Chen, A. Hjortsberg, E. Burstein, in Ref. 11.

R. T. Holm, E. D. Palik, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., NBS Special Publication 462 (Govt. Printing Office, Wash. D.C., 1976), p. 246.

D. Krause, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 483.
[CrossRef]

L. H. Skolnik, “Spectral Emittance Measurements on Some Laser Window Materials,” AFCRL-TR-74-0590 (1974).

D. L. Stierwalt, in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1975, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds. NBS Special Publication 435 (1976), p. 148.

L. Hobrock, Hughes Aircraft; private communication.

L. Skolnik, A. Kahan, Rome Air Development Center; private communication.

P. Morse, J. R. Engel, “Cryogenic Emittance Spectrometer,” RADC-TR-76-126 (1976).

L. Skolnik, in Optical Properties of Highly Transparent Solids, S. S. Mitra, B. Bendow, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1975), p. 405.
[CrossRef]

M. Sparks, in Ref. 15, p. 203.

H. S. Bennett, R. A. Forman, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Phenomena in Infrared Materials, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976).

A. Hordvik, L. Skolnik in Proceedings of the AFSC 1972 Science and Engineering Symposium, San Antonio, Texas. AFSC Publication AFSC-TR-72-005 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1972), Vol. 2.

E. Bernal G, Honeywell Corporate Research Center; private communication.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of emissometer. BB is blackbody reference, S is sample, M1, M2, etc. are mirrors, F is a cold filter, FS is a field stop, L1 is a lens, and D the detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface and bulk absorption in SrF2. Measurements were made only at discrete frequencies. The dashed straight line has been drawn with the slope found by Deutsch.2

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface and bulk absorption in BaF2. Measurements were made only at discrete frequencies. The dashed straight line has been drawn with the slope found by Deutsch.2

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of ac interferometric absorption measurement. For details see text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 State-of-the-Art Sensitivities

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( λ , T ) = A ( λ , T ) = ( 1 - R ) { 1 - exp [ - β ( λ , T ) L ] } 1 - R exp [ - β ( λ , T ) L ] .
E ( λ , T ) = β ( λ , T ) L .
β L P T = 2 n n 2 + 1 m C ( d T d t | heating + d T d t | cooling ) .
β tot = β L + 2 β s ,
= β P α ( 1 + σ ) t 2 π C ρ ( 1 - σ ) r 2 .
1 P R d P R d T = 4 π L λ ( n 1 L d L d T + d n d T ) .

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