Abstract

The rayleigh, originally defined as a unit to express the total column light emission rate [1010 photons sec−1 (m2column)−1] can equivalently be defined as a unit for apparent photon radiance (1/4π 1010 photons sec−1 m−2 sr−1). The selection of the appropriate definition will depend upon the physical situation and the interests of the user. The applicability of the unit for expressing the quantitative measurement of all extended light sources, including optically thick media, is both handy and valid.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).
  3. J. N. Howard, Appl. Opt. 14, 2827 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. EOS, Am. Geophys. Union 57, 1031 (1975).
  5. D. J. Baker, Appl. Opt. 13, 2160 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 715 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Van Tassel, D. E. Paulsen, Appl. Opt. 14, 559 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. E. Nicodemus, NBS, private communication (1975).
  9. F. J. Gardner, RCA Electro-Optics Handbook EOH-10, RCA Corp. of America, Commercial Engineering, Harrison, N.J. 07029 (1968).
  10. J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Appl. Opt. 7, 2081 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. G. Fink, J. M. Carroll, Eds., Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  12. Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 129, 458 (1930).
    [CrossRef]

1975 (3)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 715 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1956 (1)

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 129, 458 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Baker, D. J.

Chamberlain, J. W.

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

Cohen, E. R.

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 715 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, F. J.

F. J. Gardner, RCA Electro-Optics Handbook EOH-10, RCA Corp. of America, Commercial Engineering, Harrison, N.J. 07029 (1968).

Howard, J. N.

Hunten, D. M.

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Arendt, J. R.

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, NBS, private communication (1975).

Paulsen, D. E.

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 129, 458 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Roach, F. E.

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. N.

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 715 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Van Tassel, R. A.

Appl. Opt. (4)

EOS (1)

EOS, Am. Geophys. Union 57, 1031 (1975).

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

D. M. Hunten, F. E. Roach, J. W. Chamberlain, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 8, 345 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

E. R. Cohen, B. N. Taylor, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2, 715 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A (1)

Rayleigh, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A: 129, 458 (1930).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. G. Fink, J. M. Carroll, Eds., Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

F. E. Nicodemus, NBS, private communication (1975).

F. J. Gardner, RCA Electro-Optics Handbook EOH-10, RCA Corp. of America, Commercial Engineering, Harrison, N.J. 07029 (1968).

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of the Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

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Tables (1)

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Table I Airglow Radiant Entities and Their Units of Measure

Equations (17)

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R = 2.103617 π λ L × 10 13 2 π λ L × 10 13 .
1 photon / sec 1.986475 ( 1 / λ ) × 10 - 19 W .
1 rayleigh 10 10 photons sec - 1 ( m 2 - col ) - 1 .
η col ϕ ( z ) d z ,
ϕ ( z ) = lim Δ V 0 Δ φ / Δ V
φ lim Δ V col 1 Δ ϕ ( z ) Δ V .
L 5577 = 3.2 × 10 - 5 lm m - 2 sr - 1 .
L 5577 = 5.1 × 10 - 8 W m - 2 sr - 1 .
L 5577 = 5.1 × 10 - 8 W m 2 sr photon / sec ( 2 / λ ) × 10 - 19 W = 14 × 10 10 photons sec - 1 m - 2 sr - 1 .
η 5577 = 4 π × 3.2 × 10 - 5 = 4.0 × 10 - 4 lm / m 2 ,
η 5577 = 176 × 10 10 photons sec - 1 m - 2 .
η 5577 = 4 π L 5577 = 176 × 10 10 photons sec - 1 ( m 2 - col ) - 1 .
η 5577 = 176 rayleighs .
1 rayleigh ( 1 / 4 π ) × 10 10 photons sec - 1 m - 2 sr - 1 .
L 5577 = 176 rayleighs .
ϕ ¯ η h = 176 10 10 photons sec - 1 ( m 2 - col ) - 1 10 4 m / col = 1.8 × 10 - 8 photons sec - 1 m - 3 = 1.8 × 10 8 photons sec ( 2 × 10 - 19 W 0.5577 photon / sec ) m - 3 = 6.5 × 10 - 11 W m - 3 .
f ¯ = ϕ ¯ 4 π = 1.8 × 10 8 4 π = 1.4 × 10 7 photons sec - 1 m - 3 sr - 1 = 5.1 × 10 - 12 W m - 3 sr - 1 .

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