Abstract

A method, using an optimization scheme, has been developed for the interpretation of spectral albedo (or spectral reflectance) curves obtained from remotely sensed water color data. This method used a two-flow model of the radiation flow and solves for the albedo. Optimization fitting of predicted to observed reflectance data is performed by a quadratic interpolation method for the variables chlorophyll concentration and scattering coefficient. The technique is applied to airborne water color data obtained from Kawartha Lakes, Sargasso Sea, and Nova Scotia coast. The modeled spectral albedo curves are compared to those obtained experimentally, and the computed optimum water parameters are compared to ground truth values. It is shown that the backscattered spectral signal contains information that can be interpreted to give quantitative estimates of the chlorophyll concentration and turbidity in the waters studied.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. C. Ramsey, TRW Systems report to NASA, contract NASW-1658 (1968).
  2. W. R. McCluney, Appl. Opt. 13, 2422 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 12, 2803 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).
  5. W. G. Pearcy, D. F. Keene, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 573 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Miller et al., Can. J. Remote Sensing, 2, No. 1 to be published (1976).
  7. W. R. McNeil, DSS contract, 12SQ.KL347–0082 Quarterly Report for Canada Centre for Inland Waters (1974).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Schuster, Astrophys. J. 21, 1 (1905).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. O. Hulbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 33, 42 (1943).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. J. E. Tyler et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 8391 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 6, 207 (1960).
  15. R. L. Fox, Optimization Methods for Engineering Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1971).
  16. S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Presentation at the Third Canadian Remote Sensing Symposium, Edmonton (September 1975).
  17. G. G. Shepherd et al., CRESS Report to Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, “A Study of Two Spectroscopic Devices for Earth Resource Surveys” (1973).
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    [CrossRef]

1974

W. G. Pearcy, D. F. Keene, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 573 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. R. McCluney, Appl. Opt. 13, 2422 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

H. R. Gordon, Appl. Opt. 12, 2803 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, CASI J. 14, 521 (1973).

1972

J. E. Tyler et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 8391 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. L. Clarke et al., Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 6, 207 (1960).

1945

1943

1905

A. Schuster, Astrophys. J. 21, 1 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke et al., Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, R. L.

R. L. Fox, Optimization Methods for Engineering Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1971).

Gordon, H. R.

Hulbert, E. O.

Jain, S. C.

S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Presentation at the Third Canadian Remote Sensing Symposium, Edmonton (September 1975).

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

Keene, D. F.

W. G. Pearcy, D. F. Keene, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 573 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McCluney, W. R.

McNeil, W. R.

W. R. McNeil, DSS contract, 12SQ.KL347–0082 Quarterly Report for Canada Centre for Inland Waters (1974).

Miller, J. R.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, CASI J. 14, 521 (1973).

J. R. Miller et al., Can. J. Remote Sensing, 2, No. 1 to be published (1976).

S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Presentation at the Third Canadian Remote Sensing Symposium, Edmonton (September 1975).

Pearcy, W. G.

W. G. Pearcy, D. F. Keene, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 573 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, R. C.

R. C. Ramsey, TRW Systems report to NASA, contract NASW-1658 (1968).

Ruttner, F.

F. Sauberer, F. Ruttner, Die Strahlungsverhiiltnisse der Binnengewasser (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1941) (see page 67 of Ref. 4).

Sauberer, F.

F. Sauberer, F. Ruttner, Die Strahlungsverhiiltnisse der Binnengewasser (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1941) (see page 67 of Ref. 4).

Schuster, A.

A. Schuster, Astrophys. J. 21, 1 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, CASI J. 14, 521 (1973).

G. G. Shepherd et al., CRESS Report to Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, “A Study of Two Spectroscopic Devices for Earth Resource Surveys” (1973).

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 8391 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 6, 207 (1960).

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

A. Schuster, Astrophys. J. 21, 1 (1905).
[CrossRef]

CASI J.

J. R. Miller, G. G. Shepherd, CASI J. 14, 521 (1973).

Deep Sea Res.

C. S. Yentsch, Deep Sea Res. 6, 207 (1960).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Limnol. Oceanogr.

W. G. Pearcy, D. F. Keene, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 573 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. L. Clarke et al., Science 167, 1119 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. Sauberer, F. Ruttner, Die Strahlungsverhiiltnisse der Binnengewasser (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1941) (see page 67 of Ref. 4).

J. R. Miller et al., Can. J. Remote Sensing, 2, No. 1 to be published (1976).

W. R. McNeil, DSS contract, 12SQ.KL347–0082 Quarterly Report for Canada Centre for Inland Waters (1974).

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

R. C. Ramsey, TRW Systems report to NASA, contract NASW-1658 (1968).

R. L. Fox, Optimization Methods for Engineering Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1971).

S. C. Jain, J. R. Miller, Presentation at the Third Canadian Remote Sensing Symposium, Edmonton (September 1975).

G. G. Shepherd et al., CRESS Report to Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, “A Study of Two Spectroscopic Devices for Earth Resource Surveys” (1973).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optimization program used to evaluate the chlorophyll concentration and scattering coefficient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed and optimum spectrum of Balsum Lake.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed spectrum and optimum fit to Chemung Lake remotely sensed data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed and calculated spectrum of Rice Lake.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of values of scattering coefficient obtained above to the experimental data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimization of spectrum observed by Clarke et al.9 to evaluate chlorophyll concentration.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculations for data observed over Sargasso Sea. The calculated results for experimental values of absorption and scattering coefficients are normalized and show the closeness of shape of spectrum for experimental and theoretical values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrum for observations made at Nova Scotia coast.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Data on Kawartha Lakes

Tables Icon

Table II Optimum Parameters

Equations (8)

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D [ a b ] = [ - β d - ( 1 - η d ) σ d ( 1 - η d ) σ d - ( 1 - η d ) σ d β d + ( 1 - η d ) σ d ] [ a b ] + [ i η c σ c - i ( 1 - η c ) σ c ] ,
i = i 0 exp [ - ( β c + σ c ) sec θ · z ] ,
b 0 = k q k + g + β d a 0 + σ c ( 1 - η c ) i 0 k + β d + g × [ 1 - ( p - k - β d ) - ( η c k / ( 1 - η c ) ( p + g ) ] ,
b 0 = k a a 0 + k i i 0 .
a 0 = a 00 ( 1 - R a ) + R w b 0 ,
b 00 = R a a 00 + b 0 ( 1 - R w ) ,
b 00 = R a a 00 + ( 1 - R w ) 1 - R w k a [ k a a 00 ( 1 - R a ) + k i i 0 ] ,
b 00 = k a 0 a 00 + k i 0 i 00 .

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