Abstract

Cube corner retroreflectors with nominal dihedral angles of 90° 0′ 1.5″ were fabricated, tested, and analyzed to determine the return energy in the annular ring of the far field diffraction pattern required by the Laser Geodynamic Satellite. Performance was assessed for variations in the dihedral angles, optical surfaces, and thermal environment. Despite relatively high independent axial and radial sensitivities, the changes caused by the anticipated thermal environment were found to be negligible; however, there were substantial variations between the analytical predictions and measured performance.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Chang, D. Currie, C. Alley, M. Pittman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61,431 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. MerriamA. D. Little Corp., for Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Thermal Design Study of The Cannonball Satellite, contract PC-71-7026 (1971).
  4. P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).
  5. R. C. Spencer, NDRC (MIT) Radiation Laboratory Report 433 (1944).
  6. J. L. Synge, Quart. Appl. Math. 4, No. 2, 166 (1946).
  7. P. Yoder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 48, 496 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  8. LAGEOS Phase B Report, NASA MSFC, (1974), Part 1, Sec. 1, pp. 4–7.
  9. M. Rimmer, Itek Corp., private communication (1974).
  10. R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.
  11. E. Granholm, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendix A.
  12. M. Rimmer, R. Byrd, M. Kahan (Itek Optical Systems Division) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices P and Q.
  13. J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.
  14. P. Evans, NASA MSFC; private communication (1974).
  15. R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.
  16. R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.
  17. J. Brueger, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Sec. 7.

1975 (1)

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

1973 (2)

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).

1971 (1)

1958 (1)

1946 (1)

J. L. Synge, Quart. Appl. Math. 4, No. 2, 166 (1946).

Alley,

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alley, C.

Bender, P.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueger, J.

J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.

J. Brueger, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Sec. 7.

Byrd, R.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

M. Rimmer, R. Byrd, M. Kahan (Itek Optical Systems Division) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices P and Q.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.

Chang, R.

Currie, D.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Chang, D. Currie, C. Alley, M. Pittman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61,431 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dicke, R.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, D.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, P.

P. Evans, NASA MSFC; private communication (1974).

Faller, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Granholm, E.

J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.

E. Granholm, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendix A.

Kahan, M.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

M. Rimmer, R. Byrd, M. Kahan (Itek Optical Systems Division) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices P and Q.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.

Kaula, W.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larmer, J.

P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).

Maszatics, J.

J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.

Merriam, R.

R. MerriamA. D. Little Corp., for Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Thermal Design Study of The Cannonball Satellite, contract PC-71-7026 (1971).

Minott, P.

P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).

Monroe, J.

J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.

J. Brueger, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Sec. 7.

Mulholland, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pittman, M.

Plotkin, H.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poultney, S.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rimmer, M.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

M. Rimmer, R. Byrd, M. Kahan (Itek Optical Systems Division) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices P and Q.

M. Rimmer, Itek Corp., private communication (1974).

Rimmer (Itek), M.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

Silverberg, E.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, R. C.

R. C. Spencer, NDRC (MIT) Radiation Laboratory Report 433 (1944).

Synge, J. L.

J. L. Synge, Quart. Appl. Math. 4, No. 2, 166 (1946).

Weir, P.

P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).

Wilkinson, D.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J.

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoder, P.

Zanoni (Zygo), C.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.

Bendix Aerospace Systems Division (1)

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek Optical Systems Divisions) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit (1)

P. Weir, J. Larmer, P. Minott, GEOS-B Cube Corner Performance Test in Simulated Orbit, NASA GSFC X-524-73-270 (1973).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Quart. Appl. Math. (1)

J. L. Synge, Quart. Appl. Math. 4, No. 2, 166 (1946).

Science (1)

P. Bender, D. Currie, R. Dicke, D. Eckhardt, J. Faller, W. Kaula, J. Mulholland, H. Plotkin, S. Poultney, E. Silverberg, D. Wilkinson, J. Williams, Alley, Science 182, No. 4109, 229 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (11)

LAGEOS Phase B Report, NASA MSFC, (1974), Part 1, Sec. 1, pp. 4–7.

M. Rimmer, Itek Corp., private communication (1974).

R. MerriamA. D. Little Corp., for Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Thermal Design Study of The Cannonball Satellite, contract PC-71-7026 (1971).

R. C. Spencer, NDRC (MIT) Radiation Laboratory Report 433 (1944).

E. Granholm, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendix A.

M. Rimmer, R. Byrd, M. Kahan (Itek Optical Systems Division) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices P and Q.

J. Brueger, E. Granholm, J. Maszatics, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4159 (1974), Vol. 2, Appendices R, S, T, and U.

P. Evans, NASA MSFC; private communication (1974).

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo) for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 3 and 4.

R. Byrd, M. Kahan, M. Rimmer (Itek), C. Zanoni (Zygo), for Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Secs. 5 and 6.

J. Brueger, J. Monroe, Bendix Aerospace Systems Division Report, BSR 4175 (1975), Vol. 2, Sec. 7.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Thermal/optical test setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far field diffraction instrument optical schematic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far field diffraction patterns.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retroreflector optical performance (isothermal/vacuum).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retroreflector optical performance (−30 °C-vacuum).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Retroreflector optical performance (+30°C-vacuum).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative effect of TV conditions on optical performance. Laser field angle (α = 0°).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity vs recess depth and incidence angle.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Percent energy in 13.2–16.9-sec of arc annulus vs cube dihedral angle.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Percent energy in 13.2–16.9-sec of arc annulus vs cube dihedral angle.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Annulus centroid diameter vs cube dihedral angle.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Percent energy in 13.2–16.9-sec of annulus vs cube dihedral angle.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Annulus centroid diameter vs cube dihedral angle.

Tables (3)

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Table I Optical Analysis

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Table II Thermal/Optical Test Conditions

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Table III CCR Parameters

Equations (1)

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θ = 3.26 η δ ,

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