Abstract

The applicability of the high energy discretely tuned DF laser for remote measurement of HCl, CH4, and N2O has been investigated. A single-ended or monostatic lidar system using radiation backscattered from topographical targets was tested. Selective absorption of the backscattered signal was used to infer concentration of gaseous species. Good agreement was obtained between the lidar measurements and the concentrations determined by in situ measurements in the remotely positioned sample chamber. The lowest measurable material concentration for each gas was inferred from random fluctuations in the measured concentration. Sensitivity of the existing system to HCl, CH4, and N2O was found to be 0.05 ppm-km, 6.0 ppm-km, and 0.24 ppm-km, respectively. An N2O plume was also measured in the open atmosphere between the lidar system and a foliage target to demonstrate system capabilities under typical field conditions. Performance predictions indicate that total burden and range-resolved species concentration measurements are feasible to a range of 10 km or more with commercially available components.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18, 754 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. L. Hanst, Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 161 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. C. O’Shea, L. G. Dodge, Appl. Opt. 13, 1481 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).
  5. J. Kuhl, H. Spitschan, Opt. Commun. 13, 6 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, Conference on the Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, sponsored by the Optical Society of America, Anaheim, Calif., March 1975.
  7. R. T. Ku, E. D. Hinkley, J. O. Sample, Appl. Opt. 14, 854 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Asai, T. Igarashi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 211 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. A. McClenny, International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 1975.
  11. T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. N. Rao, Ohio State University, private communication.
  13. C. H. Bair, F. Allario, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.
  14. D. J. Spencer, G. C. Denault, H. H. Takimoto, Appl. Opt. 13, 2855 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kline, T. McClintock, Mech. Eng. 75, 3 (1953).
  17. J. H. Perry, Ed., Chemical Engineer’s Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).
  18. M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).
  19. R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

1976 (2)

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (4)

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuhl, H. Spitschan, Opt. Commun. 13, 6 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Ku, E. D. Hinkley, J. O. Sample, Appl. Opt. 14, 854 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 211 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Spencer, G. C. Denault, H. H. Takimoto, Appl. Opt. 13, 2855 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. C. O’Shea, L. G. Dodge, Appl. Opt. 13, 1481 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1953 (1)

S. Kline, T. McClintock, Mech. Eng. 75, 3 (1953).

Allario, F.

C. H. Bair, F. Allario, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

Asai, K.

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 211 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bair, C. H.

C. H. Bair, F. Allario, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colburn, D. S.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

Craig, S. E.

S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).

Denault, G. C.

Dodge, L. G.

Garbuny, M.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasiorek, L. S.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 161 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, T.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

Igarashi, T.

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 211 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kline, S.

S. Kline, T. McClintock, Mech. Eng. 75, 3 (1953).

Kruger, C. H.

E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

Kuhl, J.

J. Kuhl, H. Spitschan, Opt. Commun. 13, 6 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Liston, E. M.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).

McClenny, W. A.

W. A. McClenny, International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 1975.

McClintock, T.

S. Kline, T. McClintock, Mech. Eng. 75, 3 (1953).

Menzies, R. T.

Mitchner, M.

E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. R.

S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).

Morreal, J. A.

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. C.

Pollack, J. B.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

Proctor, E. K.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).

Rao, K. N.

K. N. Rao, Ohio State University, private communication.

Roberts, D. L.

S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, Conference on the Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, sponsored by the Optical Society of America, Anaheim, Calif., March 1975.

Sample, J. O.

Shumate, M. S.

Snowman, L. R.

S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).

Spencer, D. J.

Spitschan, H.

J. Kuhl, H. Spitschan, Opt. Commun. 13, 6 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Takimoto, H. H.

van der Laan, J. E.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, Conference on the Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, sponsored by the Optical Society of America, Anaheim, Calif., March 1975.

Wright, M. L.

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, C. H. Kruger, M. Mitchner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 180 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

P. L. Hanst, J. A. Morreal, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 18, 754 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mech. Eng. (1)

S. Kline, T. McClintock, Mech. Eng. 75, 3 (1953).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Kuhl, H. Spitschan, Opt. Commun. 13, 6 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Asai, T. Igarashi, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 211 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. L. Wright, J. B. Pollack, D. S. Colburn, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, Conference on the Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, sponsored by the Optical Society of America, Anaheim, Calif., March 1975.

S. E. Craig, D. R. Morgan, D. L. Roberts, L. R. Snowman, Technical Report No. EPA-650/2-74-046-A, General Electric, Ordnance Systems, Pittsfield, Mass. (June1974).

J. H. Perry, Ed., Chemical Engineer’s Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, Technical Report No. NASA CR-132724, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. (June1975).

K. N. Rao, Ohio State University, private communication.

C. H. Bair, F. Allario, paper presented at the Seventh International Laser Radar Conference, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., November 1975.

W. A. McClenny, International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 1975.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On-line diagnostics for wavelength, pulse energy, and pulse shape.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Receiver electronics and data display equipment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In situ CH4 monitoring and calibration systems: (a) continuous CH4 monitoring system using a gas analyzer, which is a multipath ir transmissometer; (b) configuration used for the calibration of the gas analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gas analyzer calibration for CH4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of behavior of the ratio of backscattered to transmitted signal during system operation on HCl.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Summary of remote measurement tests of HCl in a sample chamber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

HCl gas concentration as a function of relative humidity at 20°C.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Summary of remote measurement tests of CH4 in a sample chamber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Summary of remote measurement tests of N2O in a sample chamber.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Results of N2O plume measurement in the open atmosphere near the limit of system detectability.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Existing and Projected System Sensitivities for a Single Pair of Pulses

Tables Icon

Table III Measurement Error (ppm-km) due to Interfering Species over an 8-km Horizontal Path a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

c = 1 2 α L ln I ng - I w I - I w
P r ( R ) = U t A r R 2 λ 2 β 180 T s exp ( - 2 α R ) ,

Metrics