Abstract

The excitation efficiencies for coupling surface electromagnetic waves onto aluminum at a microwave frequency (f = 8.445 GHz, λ = 3.55 cm) were studied experimentally for several different standard microwave techniques as well as two optical techniques (prism and grating) applied to the microwave frequency region and two new techniques (hump and valley). The peak measured efficiencies found were: for the standard rectangular waveguide, 92%; for the horn antenna, 73%; for the right angle prism properly gapped above the metal, 60%; for the hump of 10-wavelength radius of curvature, 35%; for the thin grating strips on polystyrene coated metal, 30%; for the grating bars gapped ½ wavelength above the metal, 26%; and, for the valley of 10-wavelength radius, 12%. The measurement of the excitation efficiencies for prism and grating coupling techniques sometimes required that the prism or grating be in the near field of the antenna. In addition to measuring peak efficiencies, the efficiencies were measured as functions of the gap heights, the angular orientations, the different diffraction modes, the shapes, and the materials of the grating bars. The coupling efficiencies for both prism and grating couplers show a strong dependence on gap height above the metal. Dielectric grating bars were found to be inefficient compared to solid or hollow metallic bars, or thin metallic strips. The distance between the target point of the center line of the microwave horn antenna and the corner of the prism was found to be about 1 wavelength for maximum prism coupling efficiency.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Osterberg, L. W. Smith, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1073 (1964)
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Bell, B. Fischer, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 12, 832 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).
  8. D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 708 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. A. Angulo, W. S. C. ChangIRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-7, 359 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Goubau, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1119 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. F. Harvey, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-8, 30 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. E. M. Barlow, J. Brown, Radio Surface Waves (Oxford U. P., New York, 1962).
  16. E. S. Cassedy, in Handbook of Microwave Measurements, M. Sucher, J. Fox, Eds. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1963).
  17. O. Hunderi, D. Beaglehole, Opt. Commun. 1, 101 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. W. Barreman, Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1235 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1337 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 583 (1970)
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 269 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1467 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. K. Barnoski, Ed., Introduction to Integrated Optics (Plenum, New York, 1974).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Davarpanah, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Rolla Library, Rolla, Missouri (1975).
  32. R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. M. Barlow, A. L. Cullen, Proc. IEEE (London) 100, 329 (1953).
  34. J. D. Kraus, Antennas (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).
  35. C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).
  37. J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics (Prentice-HallEnglewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972).

1977 (1)

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).

1975 (5)

J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (4)

R. J. Bell, B. Fischer, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 12, 832 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (5)

N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1467 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (6)

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1337 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1235 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 583 (1970)
[CrossRef]

D. W. Barreman, Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (4)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 708 (1969).
[CrossRef]

O. Hunderi, D. Beaglehole, Opt. Commun. 1, 101 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1960 (1)

A. F. Harvey, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-8, 30 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

C. A. Angulo, W. S. C. ChangIRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-7, 359 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

H. M. Barlow, A. L. Cullen, Proc. IEEE (London) 100, 329 (1953).

1950 (1)

G. Goubau, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, W. E.

W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Angulo, C. A.

C. A. Angulo, W. S. C. ChangIRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-7, 359 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, H. E. M.

H. E. M. Barlow, J. Brown, Radio Surface Waves (Oxford U. P., New York, 1962).

Barlow, H. M.

H. M. Barlow, A. L. Cullen, Proc. IEEE (London) 100, 329 (1953).

Barreman, D. W.

D. W. Barreman, Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, A. C.

Beaglehole, D.

O. Hunderi, D. Beaglehole, Opt. Commun. 1, 101 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 708 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Begley, D. L.

Bell, R. J.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).

J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, B. Fischer, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 12, 832 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bhasin, K.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, J.

H. E. M. Barlow, J. Brown, Radio Surface Waves (Oxford U. P., New York, 1962).

Burstein, E.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cassedy, E. S.

E. S. Cassedy, in Handbook of Microwave Measurements, M. Sucher, J. Fox, Eds. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1963).

Chang, W. S. C.

C. A. Angulo, W. S. C. ChangIRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-7, 359 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Cullen, A. L.

H. M. Barlow, A. L. Cullen, Proc. IEEE (London) 100, 329 (1953).

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Davarpanah, M.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Davarpanah, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Rolla Library, Rolla, Missouri (1975).

Elson, J. M.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

R. J. Bell, B. Fischer, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 12, 832 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, B.

N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Goben, C. A.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt. 14, 1322 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R. W. Alexander, Appl. Opt. 14, 1579 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goubau, G.

G. Goubau, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. H.

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. F.

A. F. Harvey, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-8, 30 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

O. Hunderi, D. Beaglehole, Opt. Commun. 1, 101 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus, Antennas (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).

Kuhn, L.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Marschall, N.

B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Arendt, J. R.

J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics (Prentice-HallEnglewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972).

Midwinter, J. E.

J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 583 (1970)
[CrossRef]

Osterberg, H.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Polky, J. N.

Queisser, H. J.

B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
[CrossRef]

N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Schoenwald, J.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Scott, B. A.

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shubert, R.

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, J. N. Polky, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1007 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. W.

Teng, J. F.

J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1235 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, I.

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, I. L.

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1467 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1337 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1235 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dakss, L. Kuhn, P. F. Heidrich, B. A. Scott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 523 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, M. Davarpanah, R. W. Alexander, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II-20, 418 (1975).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. E. Midwinter, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-6, 583 (1970)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. H. Harris, R. Shubert, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

C. A. Angulo, W. S. C. ChangIRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-7, 359 (1959).
[CrossRef]

IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

A. F. Harvey, IRE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-8, 30 (1960).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Goubau, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 1119 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1674 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Hunderi, D. Beaglehole, Opt. Commun. 1, 101 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. N. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, Phys. Rev. 188, 759 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. W. Barreman, Phys. Rev. B 1, 381 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. Beaglehole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 708 (1969).
[CrossRef]

N. Marschall, B. Fisher, H. J. Queisser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 95 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Andersen, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1057 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. F. Teng, R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, Phys. Status Solidi B 68, 513 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (London) (1)

H. M. Barlow, A. L. Cullen, Proc. IEEE (London) 100, 329 (1953).

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (2)

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer, N. Marschall, H. J. Queisser, Surf. Sci. 34, 50 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wave Electron. (1)

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, Wave Electron. 00, 000 3 (1977).

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. E. M. Barlow, J. Brown, Radio Surface Waves (Oxford U. P., New York, 1962).

E. S. Cassedy, in Handbook of Microwave Measurements, M. Sucher, J. Fox, Eds. (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, 1963).

J. D. Kraus, Antennas (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950).

M. K. Barnoski, Ed., Introduction to Integrated Optics (Plenum, New York, 1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer-Arendt, Introduction to Classical and Modern Optics (Prentice-HallEnglewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972).

M. Davarpanah, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Rolla Library, Rolla, Missouri (1975).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used for the measurement of the coupling efficiency for the grating coupling technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating coupling efficiency vs (gap height)/(wavelength) for a grating consisting of seven 1.27-cm diam iron bars. The grating constant is 5.4 cm, and the wavelength is 3.55 cm. Curve A is for the bare metal, curve B is for the metal covered with a 1.6-mm polystyrene (R = 2.56) overlayer, and curve C is for the metal covered with a 4.8-mm polystyrene overlayer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of relative efficiency from a decoupling grating. The angles and corresponding mode orders from Eq. (1) are shown here for comparison with experimental results. The grating consists of seven 1.27-cm diam solid iron bars. The grating constant (d) is 5.4 cm, The grating gap height is λ/2 where the wavelength (λ) is 3.55 cm (f = 8.445 GHz).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Prism coupling efficiency vs (gap height)/(wavelength) for a soft polyethylene (R = 2.25) prism. Curve A is for the bare metal, curve B is for the metal covered with a 1.6-mm polystyrene (R = 2.56) overlayer, and curve C is for the metal covered with a 4.8-mm polystyrene overlayer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Prism coupling efficiency vs d/λ [(the distance of the aiming point of the center line of the 7.5 × 5.5-cm microwave horn antenna measured from the corner of the prism)/(wavelength)]. The prism is of soft polyethylene (R = 2.25). Curve A is for the uncoated metal strip case, and curve B is for a thin dielectric [1.6-mm thick polystyrene (R = 2.55)] placed above the metal strip 30.48 cm wide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular distribution of relative radiation intensity from the vertical face of the right-angle prism. Prism is made of soft polyethylene (R = 2.25). Prism gap height is 2.4 cm and λ = 3.55 cm. Curve A is for the case of a bare prism (no shield), curve B is for the shielded prism case in which the front and top face of the prism were covered with metal sheets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

x-z Plane (vertical plane parallel to direction of propagation) angular distribution of relative efficiency from a decoupling hump (x is the direction of propagation). The hump has a height of 37 cm and the curvature cross section as shown in the insert. Dimension of the hump in the y direction is 30.48 cm. Curve A is for an uncoated metal hump, and curve B is for a hump with a 2.29-mm thick overlayer of polyethylene (R = 2.25).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

y-z Plane (vertical plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation) angular distribution of relative efficiency from a dedoupling hump (x is the direction of propagation). The hump has a height of 37 cm and the curvature cross section as shown in the insert of Fig. 7. Dimension of the hump in the y direction is 30.48 cm. Curve A is for an uncoated metal hump, and curve B is for a hump with a 2.29-mm thick overlayer of polyethylene (R = 2.25).

Tables (2)

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Table I Maximum Measured Grating Coupling Efficiency for Various Materials and Shapes of the Grating Bars at f = 8.445 GHz (λ = 3.55 cm) Measured at Optimum Gap Heights

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Table II Maximum Measured SEW Excitation Efficiency for Various Coupling Techniques at f = 8.445 GHz (λ = 3.55 cm)

Equations (2)

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sin θ m = 1 - [ ( m λ ) / d ] ; m = 0 , 1 , 2 , ,
g = ( 2 n + 1 ) λ / 4 ; n = 0 , 1 , 2 ,

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