Abstract

The variation of the core–cladding refractive index difference Δn(λ) is determined as a function of wavelength for GeO2-SiO2, B2O3-SiO2, TiO2-SiO2, P2O5-SiO2, Al2O3-SiO2, and Cs2O-SiO2 optical fibers. The measurements are obtained by electronically processing the output of an interference microscope illuminated by a monochromatic light source variable over the 0.5–1.1-μm range. The Δn(λ) results are utilized to calculate the precise grading of the refractive index profile characterized by an exponent α(λ) required to achieve a minimum modal dispersion. The material dispersion for these compositions is also calculated with the aid of available n(λ) data for SiO2.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

H. M. Presby and I. P. Kaminow, "Binary silica optical fibers: refractive index and profile dispersion measurements; corrigenda," Appl. Opt. 17, 3530-3531 (1978)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-17-22-3530

References

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  1. S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).
  3. R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, Appl. Opt. 15, 483 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. M. Malitson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1205 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, “Profile Synthesis in Multi-Component Optical Fibers,” to be published, Applied Optics.
  7. H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. N. Randall, P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished measurements on bulk SiO2-GeO2-P2O5 glass.
  10. J. W. Colby, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 11, 287 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, T. P. Lee, Appl. Opt. 13, 261 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. W. Tasker, W. G. French, Proc. IEEE 62, 1281 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. G. French, G. W. Tasker, J. R. Simpson, Appl. Opt. 15, 1803 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. G. Cohen, Appl. Opt. 15, 1808 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. W. Fleming, Fall meeting of the American Ceramic Society, Pocono Manor (Penn.)Oct. 1975.
  17. P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, BTL; unpublished work.
  18. P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.
  19. B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. B. Keck, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.
  21. P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, BTL; unpublished work.
  22. H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).
  23. S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. A. Arnaud, J. W. Fleming, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 7, 167 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1976 (6)

H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Arnaud, J. W. Fleming, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 7, 167 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, Appl. Opt. 15, 483 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. French, G. W. Tasker, J. R. Simpson, Appl. Opt. 15, 1803 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Cohen, Appl. Opt. 15, 1808 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (4)

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Tasker, W. G. French, Proc. IEEE 62, 1281 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, T. P. Lee, Appl. Opt. 13, 261 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (3)

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. W. Colby, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 11, 287 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Arnaud, J. A.

J. A. Arnaud, J. W. Fleming, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 7, 167 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chinnock, E. L.

Cohen, L. G.

Colby, J. W.

J. W. Colby, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 11, 287 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

J. A. Arnaud, J. W. Fleming, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 7, 167 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleming, Fall meeting of the American Ceramic Society, Pocono Manor (Penn.)Oct. 1975.

French, W. G.

Gambling, W. A.

B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, T. P. Lee, Appl. Opt. 13, 261 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

Grodkiewicz, W. H.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Izawa, T.

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, R. J.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, “Profile Synthesis in Multi-Component Optical Fibers,” to be published, Applied Optics.

Keck, D. B.

R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, Appl. Opt. 15, 483 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Keck, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J. T.

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. P.

Li, Tingye

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
[CrossRef]

MacChesney, J. B.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, BTL; unpublished work.

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, BTL; unpublished work.

Malitson, I. M.

Mammel, W.

H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, S. R.

S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nakagowe, H.

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, P. B.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, BTL; unpublished work.

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, BTL; unpublished work.

Olshansky, R.

Payne, D. N.

B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A. D.

S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pinnow, D. A.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, “Profile Synthesis in Multi-Component Optical Fibers,” to be published, Applied Optics.

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, BTL; unpublished work.

Randall, E. N.

E. N. Randall, P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished measurements on bulk SiO2-GeO2-P2O5 glass.

Rich, T. C.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, P.

E. N. Randall, P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished measurements on bulk SiO2-GeO2-P2O5 glass.

P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.

Shiever, J. W.

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J. R.

W. G. French, G. W. Tasker, J. R. Simpson, Appl. Opt. 15, 1803 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, BTL; unpublished work.

Standley, R. D.

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

Tasker, G. W.

Tsuchiya, H.

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, A. R.

S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
[CrossRef]

VanUitert, L. G.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. C.

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adv. X-Ray Anal. (1)

J. W. Colby, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 11, 287 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst, Tech. J. (1)

H. M. Presby, R. D. Standley, J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, Bell Syst, Tech. J., 54, 1681 (1975).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. Gloge, I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Electron. Lett. 11, No. 19, 469 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobayashi, H. Nakagowe, N. Shimizu, H. Tsuchiya, T. Izawa, Electron. Lett. 10, No. 20, 410 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Arnaud, J. W. Fleming, Electron. Lett. 12, No. 7, 167 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

K. Nassau, J. W. Shiever, J. T. Krause, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 461 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Nagel, A. D. Pearson, A. R. Tynes, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 59, 47 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mat. Res. Bull. (1)

L. G. VanUitert, D. A. Pinnow, J. C. Williams, T. C. Rich, R. J. Jaeger, W. H. Grodkiewicz, Mat. Res. Bull. 8, 469 (1973); S. H. Wemple, D. A. Pinnow, T. C. Rich, R. E. Jaeger, L. G. VanUitert, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5432 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Luther-Davies, D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, Opt. Commun. 13, 84 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (3)

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O’Connor, H. M. Presby, Proc. IEEE 62, 1280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Miller, E. A. J. Marcatili, Tingye Li, Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Tasker, W. G. French, Proc. IEEE 62, 1281 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. M. Presby, W. Mammel, R. M. Derosier, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 348 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, “Profile Synthesis in Multi-Component Optical Fibers,” to be published, Applied Optics.

J. W. Fleming, Fall meeting of the American Ceramic Society, Pocono Manor (Penn.)Oct. 1975.

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, J. R. Simpson, BTL; unpublished work.

P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.

E. N. Randall, P. Schultz, Corning Glass Works, unpublished measurements on bulk SiO2-GeO2-P2O5 glass.

D. B. Keck, Corning Glass Works, unpublished.

P. B. O’Connor, J. B. MacChesney, H. M. Presby, BTL; unpublished work.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Picturephone display of graded index optical fiber at (a): 0.5 μm;(b): 0.9 μm and respective electronic fringes displays (c) and (d): corresponding fringes in both displays are labeled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Δn(λ) for GeO2-SiO2 step-index fiber with 200-μm diam core. The estimated GeO2 molar concentration is 22%. The error is less than 4 parts in 105.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for GeO2-SiO2. The accuracy in determining α is 0.02.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

M(λ) for GeO2-SiO2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Δn(λ) for both B2O3-SiO2 graded index fiber (A) and stepped-index composition 300-μm diam sample at estimated B2O3 molar concentrations of A, 13%; B, 8.5%; C, 4.2%; and D, 2.5%. The error is less than 1.5 parts in 105.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for B2O3-SiO2. The accuracy in determining a is 0.03.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

M(λ) for B2O3-SiO2. The curve is an average of measurements A, B, C, and D and deviates only slightly from pure SiO2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Δn(λ) for P2O5-SiO2 at two different dopant levels A and B. The error is less than 1 part in 105.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for P2O5-SiO2. The results for the two concentrations are within the experimental uncertainty of ±0.015.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

M(λ) for P2O3SiO2. The curve is identical with that of undoped SiO2.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Δn(λ) for TiO2-SiO2. The fiber contains a relatively low dopant concentration (~2%). The error is on the order of 1.5 parts in 104.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for TiO2SiO2, showing a variation from α = 2.6 to α = 2.2.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

M(λ) for TiO2-SiO2.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Δn(λ) for Al2O3-SiO2 exhibiting a broad minimum at 0.9 μm. The error is on the order of 3 parts in 105.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

a(λ) ≡ 2–2P for Al2O3-SiO2 with an uncertainty of ±0.03.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

M(λ) for Al2O3-SiO2.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Δn(λ) for CS2O-SiO2 in a graded index fiber. Note the minimum at 0.75 μm. The error is less than 5 parts in 105.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for CS2O-SiO2.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

M(λ) for CS2O-SiO2.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

α(λ) ≡ 2–2P for all the binary compositions studied.

Tables (1)

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Table I Expansion Coefficients for Polynomial of Eq. (3)

Equations (8)

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Δ n ( λ ) = λ t h ( λ ) Λ ( λ )
Λ = m λ + q
Δ n ( λ ) = 0 K b k λ k ;
α ( λ ) = 2 - 2 P - Δ ( 4 - 2 P ) ( 3 - 2 P ) ( 5 - 4 P ) ,
Δ ( λ ) = n c ( λ ) - n ( 0 , λ ) n c ( λ ) = Δ n ( λ ) n c ( λ )
P ( λ ) = n N λ Δ Δ λ Δ Δ = λ ( Δ n Δ n - n n ) .
α ( λ ) = 2 - 2 P .
α = 2 λ ( Λ Λ - h h + n n ) ,

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