Abstract

In this paper results are given of an electron optical investigation of the cross section of optical single films and multilayers obtained by fracture. Direct observation techniques with scanning microscopy and the surface replica technique with transmission microscopy were used. Scanning microscopy is simple in sample preparation but has relatively low resolution. The highest resolution of microstructural details can be obtained only with the replica technique in the transmission microscope. Photographs of ZnS-, MgF2-, ThF4-, TiO2-, and SiO2-films mainly in the form of multilayers and of a cermet-type sun protection film are shown. Some optical film properties, such as refractive index and light scattering, are strongly influenced by film microstructure.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, Thin Solid Films 9, 57 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 6, 349 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. K. Pulker, K. H. Guenther, Vak. Tech. 21, 202 (1972).
  4. K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn, Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (Springer, Berlin, 1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Reimer, Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs-und Präparationsmethoden (Springer, Berlin, 1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Schimmel, Elektronenmikroskopische Methodik (Springer, Berlin, 1969).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Preisinger, H. K. Pulker, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2. Pt. 1, 769 (1974).

1976 (2)

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Preisinger, H. K. Pulker, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2. Pt. 1, 769 (1974).

1972 (1)

H. K. Pulker, K. H. Guenther, Vak. Tech. 21, 202 (1972).

1971 (1)

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, Thin Solid Films 9, 57 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 6, 349 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, H. L.

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, K. H. Guenther, Vak. Tech. 21, 202 (1972).

Jung, E.

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, Thin Solid Films 9, 57 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lissberger, P. H.

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. M.

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 6, 349 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pfefferkorn, G.

L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn, Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (Springer, Berlin, 1973).
[CrossRef]

Preisinger, A.

A. Preisinger, H. K. Pulker, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2. Pt. 1, 769 (1974).

Pulker, H. K.

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Preisinger, H. K. Pulker, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2. Pt. 1, 769 (1974).

H. K. Pulker, K. H. Guenther, Vak. Tech. 21, 202 (1972).

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, Thin Solid Films 9, 57 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, L.

L. Reimer, Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs-und Präparationsmethoden (Springer, Berlin, 1967).
[CrossRef]

L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn, Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (Springer, Berlin, 1973).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, G.

G. Schimmel, Elektronenmikroskopische Methodik (Springer, Berlin, 1969).
[CrossRef]

Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2 (1)

A. Preisinger, H. K. Pulker, Japan. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 2. Pt. 1, 769 (1974).

Thin Solid Films (4)

H. K. Pulker, E. Jung, Thin Solid Films 9, 57 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 6, 349 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, H. L. Gruber, H. K. Pulker, Thin Solid Films 34, 363 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vak. Tech. (1)

H. K. Pulker, K. H. Guenther, Vak. Tech. 21, 202 (1972).

Other (3)

L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn, Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (Springer, Berlin, 1973).
[CrossRef]

L. Reimer, Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs-und Präparationsmethoden (Springer, Berlin, 1967).
[CrossRef]

G. Schimmel, Elektronenmikroskopische Methodik (Springer, Berlin, 1969).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Artifactive fracture profile of a sun protection coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrammatic representation of the evaporation directions in the preparation of preshadowed carbon replica films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Terraced fracture edge of a ZnS/MgF2 λ/4 multilayer. Transmission micrograph of a carbon replica which has been preshadowed with Pt/C. The thinner films with columnar crystals of larger diameters are ZnS layers. The thicker films with columnar crystals of smaller diameters are MgF2 layers. The fractured glass substrate, the surface of the multilayers, as well as some interfaces with different roughness can be seen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross section of a ZnS/ThF4 λ/4 multilayer; substrate temperature approximately 30°C. Transmission micrograph of a preshadowed carbon replica. Columnar crystals with large diameters are ZnS layers, smaller columns indicate ThF4 layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross section of a TiO2/SiO2 λ/4 multilayer; substrate temperature approximately 300°C. Transmission micrograph of a preshadowed carbon replica. At the bottom the fractured glass and then the first TiO2 film with a columnar microstructure can be seen followed by the first SiO2 film which has a homogeneous gasslike structure. Careful observation is required to distinguish between the TiO2 and the SiO2 layers which seem to appear in this fractography as one layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TiO2 single layer, deposited at a substrate temperature of approximately 300°C: (a) direct imaging; (b) transmission picture of a carbon replica preshadowed with Pt/C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sun protection coating: (a) direct imaging; (b) transmission picture of a carbon replica preshadowed with Pt/C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Etch profile and defects in a transparent conductive layer; SEM-micrograph.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Details of a ZnS/MgF2 λ/4 multilayer (laser mirror for 633 nm).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Details of a TiO2/SiO2 λ/4 multilayer (laser mirror for 633 nm).

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