Abstract

In the late nineteen forties, a company was founded in the Principality of Liechtenstein, a tiny country located on the right bank of the upper Rhine. The development of this Balzers Company, which took its name from the village where it was and still is located, is briefly reviewed, and its uniqueness is discussed.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Schulz, H. Tiller, Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 43, 183 (1949).
  2. D. Hacman, G. Klemt, Hausmitteilungen Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach 3, 42 (1951).
  3. M. Auwärter, U.S. Pat.2,920,002 (1960).
  4. E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).
  5. A. Vogt, Br. Pat.697,403 (1953).
  6. T. Kraus, P. Rheinberger, U.S. Pat.3,034,924 (1962).
  7. B. Wille, U.S. Pat.3,783,010 (1974).
  8. M. Auwärter, Ergebnisse der Hochvakuumtechnik und der Physik dünner Schichten, Band 1, Stuttgart, 1957; Band 2, Stuttgart, 1971 Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft MbH.

1958 (1)

E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).

1951 (1)

D. Hacman, G. Klemt, Hausmitteilungen Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach 3, 42 (1951).

1949 (1)

H. Schulz, H. Tiller, Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 43, 183 (1949).

Auwärter, M.

M. Auwärter, U.S. Pat.2,920,002 (1960).

M. Auwärter, Ergebnisse der Hochvakuumtechnik und der Physik dünner Schichten, Band 1, Stuttgart, 1957; Band 2, Stuttgart, 1971 Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft MbH.

Cremer, E.

E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).

Hacman, D.

D. Hacman, G. Klemt, Hausmitteilungen Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach 3, 42 (1951).

Klemt, G.

D. Hacman, G. Klemt, Hausmitteilungen Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach 3, 42 (1951).

Kraus, T.

E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).

T. Kraus, P. Rheinberger, U.S. Pat.3,034,924 (1962).

Rheinberger, P.

T. Kraus, P. Rheinberger, U.S. Pat.3,034,924 (1962).

Ritter, E.

E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).

Schulz, H.

H. Schulz, H. Tiller, Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 43, 183 (1949).

Tiller, H.

H. Schulz, H. Tiller, Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 43, 183 (1949).

Vogt, A.

A. Vogt, Br. Pat.697,403 (1953).

Wille, B.

B. Wille, U.S. Pat.3,783,010 (1974).

Kreuznach (1)

D. Hacman, G. Klemt, Hausmitteilungen Jos. Schneider & Co., Optische Werke, Kreuznach 3, 42 (1951).

Z. Elektrochem. (1)

E. Cremer, T. Kraus, E. Ritter, Z. Elektrochem. 9, 939 (1958).

Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. (1)

H. Schulz, H. Tiller, Z. Wiss. Photogr. Photophys. Photochem. 43, 183 (1949).

Other (5)

M. Auwärter, U.S. Pat.2,920,002 (1960).

A. Vogt, Br. Pat.697,403 (1953).

T. Kraus, P. Rheinberger, U.S. Pat.3,034,924 (1962).

B. Wille, U.S. Pat.3,783,010 (1974).

M. Auwärter, Ergebnisse der Hochvakuumtechnik und der Physik dünner Schichten, Band 1, Stuttgart, 1957; Band 2, Stuttgart, 1971 Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft MbH.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A candle-operated lamp with a navel-type lens (around 1620) from the private collection of P. Rheinberger, Vaduz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The Rectaflex single lens reflex camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The Carena 8-mm movie camera.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The southern corner of Liechtenstein with part of the village of Balzers, the Gutenberg castle, and Balzers AG.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The new air-conditioned 100,000 square feet thin film building of Balzers AG.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Part of the thin film production area.

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