Abstract

A cross-correlation analysis of lidar echoes from an artificial tracer transported through two closely spaced atmospheric scattering volumes provides a remote measurement of the wind speed along the line joining the two volumes. A pulsed nitrogen transit-time lidar has been developed and used to make these measurements in real-time intervals of approximately 4 sec. The wind speed measurements are compared with conventional anemometer data. An extension of this technique to natural aerosol concentrations that exploits the laser wavelength dependence of the system SNR is discussed.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. M. Farmer, D. B. Brayton, Appl. Opt. 10, 2319 (1971).
  2. T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).
  3. C. W. Kreitzberg, Report AFCRL-TR-74-0253, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1974).
  4. V. E. Derr, C. G. Little, Appl. Opt. 9, 1976 (1970).
  5. E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).
  6. T. S. Durrani, C. A. Greated, Appl. Opt. 14, 778 (1975).
  7. D. Deirmendjian, Appl. Opt. 3, 187 (1964).

1975 (2)

E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).

T. S. Durrani, C. A. Greated, Appl. Opt. 14, 778 (1975).

1972 (1)

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

1964 (1)

Brayton, D. B.

Craven, C. E.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Deirmendjian, D.

Derr, V. E.

Durrani, T. S.

Eloranta, E. W.

E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).

Farmer, W. M.

Greated, C. A.

Huffaker, R. M.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Jones, I. P.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

King, J. M.

E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).

Kreitzberg, C. W.

C. W. Kreitzberg, Report AFCRL-TR-74-0253, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1974).

Lawrence, T. R.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Little, C. G.

Thomson, J. A. L.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Weinman, J. A.

E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).

Wilson, D. J.

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

E. W. Eloranta, J. M. King, J. A. Weinman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1485 (1975).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. R. Lawrence, D. J. Wilson, C. E. Craven, I. P. Jones, R. M. Huffaker, J. A. L. Thomson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 43, 512 (1972).

Other (1)

C. W. Kreitzberg, Report AFCRL-TR-74-0253, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. (1974).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of transit-time lidar velocimeter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Velocity vs correlation peak displacement: r = 60 Hz; data block of 256 laser pulses; volume spacings of 1.25 m, 2.5 m, and 5.0 m.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of transit-time lidar and anemometer data for three series of measurements on 14 June and 9 July 1974.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of cross-correlation data obtained using artificial tracers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated values of ΔP/P vs laser wavelength for haze C (closed circles) and haze M (open circles) aerosol models.

Tables (1)

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Table I Lidar System Characteristics

Equations (6)

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C s = l = 1 L N l M l + s ,
| d U o U o | min = 1 s o .
E [ C s ] = α 2 Δ T 2 L B 1 C o ( 2 π σ s 2 ) - 1 / 2 × exp [ - ( d o U o - d o 2 U o 2 s ) 2 / 2 σ s 2 ] ,
Δ C s = α 2 Δ T 2 B o C o ( 2 L B 1 C o ) 1 / 2 ,
( S / N ) max = ( L / 4 π σ s 2 ) 1 / 2 ( B 1 / B o 2 C o ) 1 / 2 .
( B 1 / B o 2 C o ) 1 / 2 = Δ P / P ,

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