Abstract

A rapid-scanning silicon vidicon spectrometer is described; its sensitivity extends from 300 nm to 1080 nm, where even at that wavelength it has enough sensitivity to allow observation under eclipse conditions of a pair of forbidden spectral lines from twelve-times ionized iron that are sensitive indicators of the electron density in the solar corona. Past observational work on these ir lines is reviewed, and our vidicon observations made during the 1973 total solar eclipse are discussed. The vidicon target, the scanning procedure, and the advantages of the spectrometer are described. At the 1973 eclipse, the 1074.7-nm line was detected and an upper limit set for the 1079.8-nm line at a height of 1.4 solar radii. The resultant limit to the ratio of intensities gives electron densities in agreement with those derived from other methods and is consistent with observations made at lower heights; this indicates that the only previous eclipse observation of the ratio at this height was contaminated by scattered light. Our 1973 eclipse observations were limited by the high ambient temperature of the vidicon, by the less-than-optimum match of the focal ratios of the telescope and spectrometer optics, and by problems with the pointing during totality. These difficulties can be overcome, and the silicon vidicon spectrometer will be useful in both eclipse and noneclipse solar observing to map the coronal ir spectrum and also to study the [Fe xiii] ir and interlocking uv lines.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Menzel, J. M. Pasachoff, Appl. Opt. 9, 2626 (1970).
  2. K. E. Kissell, Paul L. Byard, in Proceedings NASA Ames Solar Eclipse Symposium (1966), p. 359.
  3. J. M. Pasachoff, Sci. Am. 229, 68 (October1973).
  4. B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).
  5. B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).
  6. J. Firor, H. Zirin, Astrophys. J. 135, 122 (1962).
  7. J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 148, 229 (1967).
  8. R. Chevalier, D. Lambert, Solar Phys. 10, 115 (1969).
  9. G. Ratier, J. P. Rozelot, Solar Phys. 23, 394 (1971).
  10. G. D. Finn, D. A. Landman, Solar Phys. 30, 381 (1973).
  11. D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 181 (1973).
  12. J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Vistas Astron. 19, 341 (1976).
  13. J. S. Shklovskii, Physics of the Solar Corona (Pergamon, London, 1965).
  14. H. Zirin, Solar Phys. 11, 497 (1970).
  15. R. Fisher, T. Pope, Solar Phys. 20, 389 (1971).
  16. G. Wlérick, J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, in The Solar Corona, J. W. Evans, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), p. 177.
  17. J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, 12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1964), p. 86.
  18. V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 439 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 349 (1962)].
  19. V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 792 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 620 (1963)].
  20. P. L. Byard, K. E. Kissell, Solar Phys. 21, 351 (1971).
  21. J. A. Eddy, J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 150, 289 (1967).
  22. J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).
  23. J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).
  24. M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).
  25. E. I. Gordon, Bell Lab. Rec. 45, 174 (1967).
  26. F. W. Reynolds, Solid State Light Sensitive Storage Device, U.S. Patent3,011,089, issued 28November1961.
  27. P. H. Wendland, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 285 (1967).
  28. P. Fellgett, J. Phys. Rad. 19, 187 (1958).
  29. D. F. Ritz, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1042 (1973).
  30. J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1189 (1969).
  31. A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 879 (1964).
  32. A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  33. A. K. Pierce, L. Testerman, An Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, 1972).
  34. J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 7, 409 (1975).
  35. D. R. Flower, H. Nussbaumer, Astron. Astrophys. 31, 353 (1974).
  36. M. Malinovsky, L. Heroux, Astrophys. J. 181, 1009 (1973).

1976 (1)

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Vistas Astron. 19, 341 (1976).

1975 (1)

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 7, 409 (1975).

1974 (1)

D. R. Flower, H. Nussbaumer, Astron. Astrophys. 31, 353 (1974).

1973 (5)

M. Malinovsky, L. Heroux, Astrophys. J. 181, 1009 (1973).

D. F. Ritz, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1042 (1973).

G. D. Finn, D. A. Landman, Solar Phys. 30, 381 (1973).

D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 181 (1973).

J. M. Pasachoff, Sci. Am. 229, 68 (October1973).

1971 (3)

G. Ratier, J. P. Rozelot, Solar Phys. 23, 394 (1971).

R. Fisher, T. Pope, Solar Phys. 20, 389 (1971).

P. L. Byard, K. E. Kissell, Solar Phys. 21, 351 (1971).

1970 (2)

H. Zirin, Solar Phys. 11, 497 (1970).

D. H. Menzel, J. M. Pasachoff, Appl. Opt. 9, 2626 (1970).

1969 (2)

R. Chevalier, D. Lambert, Solar Phys. 10, 115 (1969).

J. Reader, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1189 (1969).

1967 (6)

J. A. Eddy, J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 150, 289 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

E. I. Gordon, Bell Lab. Rec. 45, 174 (1967).

P. H. Wendland, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 285 (1967).

J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 148, 229 (1967).

1964 (2)

J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, 12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1964), p. 86.

A. B. Shafer, L. R. Megill, L. Droppleman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 879 (1964).

1962 (3)

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 439 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 349 (1962)].

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 792 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 620 (1963)].

J. Firor, H. Zirin, Astrophys. J. 135, 122 (1962).

1958 (1)

P. Fellgett, J. Phys. Rad. 19, 187 (1958).

1942 (1)

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

1939 (1)

B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

1913 (1)

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).

Buck, T. M.

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Byard, P. L.

P. L. Byard, K. E. Kissell, Solar Phys. 21, 351 (1971).

Byard, Paul L.

K. E. Kissell, Paul L. Byard, in Proceedings NASA Ames Solar Eclipse Symposium (1966), p. 359.

Chevalier, R.

R. Chevalier, D. Lambert, Solar Phys. 10, 115 (1969).

Crowell, M. H.

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Dalton, J. V.

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Droppleman, L.

Dumont, J.-P.

J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, 12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1964), p. 86.

G. Wlérick, J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, in The Solar Corona, J. W. Evans, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), p. 177.

Eddy, J. A.

J. A. Eddy, J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 150, 289 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).

Edlén, B.

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

Emerson, J. P.

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).

Fellgett, P.

P. Fellgett, J. Phys. Rad. 19, 187 (1958).

Finn, G. D.

G. D. Finn, D. A. Landman, Solar Phys. 30, 381 (1973).

Firor, J.

J. Firor, H. Zirin, Astrophys. J. 135, 122 (1962).

Firor, J. W.

J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).

Fisher, R.

R. Fisher, T. Pope, Solar Phys. 20, 389 (1971).

Flower, D. R.

D. R. Flower, H. Nussbaumer, Astron. Astrophys. 31, 353 (1974).

D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 181 (1973).

Gordon, E. I.

E. I. Gordon, Bell Lab. Rec. 45, 174 (1967).

Grove, A. S.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1967).

Heroux, L.

M. Malinovsky, L. Heroux, Astrophys. J. 181, 1009 (1973).

Kissell, K. E.

P. L. Byard, K. E. Kissell, Solar Phys. 21, 351 (1971).

K. E. Kissell, Paul L. Byard, in Proceedings NASA Ames Solar Eclipse Symposium (1966), p. 359.

Kurt, V. G.

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 439 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 349 (1962)].

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 792 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 620 (1963)].

Labuda, E. F.

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Lambert, D.

R. Chevalier, D. Lambert, Solar Phys. 10, 115 (1969).

Landman, D. A.

G. D. Finn, D. A. Landman, Solar Phys. 30, 381 (1973).

Lee, R. H.

J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

Malinovsky, M.

M. Malinovsky, L. Heroux, Astrophys. J. 181, 1009 (1973).

Malville, J. M.

J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 148, 229 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 150, 289 (1967).

Megill, L. R.

Menzel, D. H.

Muzyka, D. F.

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Vistas Astron. 19, 341 (1976).

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 7, 409 (1975).

Nussbaumer, H.

D. R. Flower, H. Nussbaumer, Astron. Astrophys. 31, 353 (1974).

Pasachoff, J. M.

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Vistas Astron. 19, 341 (1976).

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 7, 409 (1975).

J. M. Pasachoff, Sci. Am. 229, 68 (October1973).

D. H. Menzel, J. M. Pasachoff, Appl. Opt. 9, 2626 (1970).

Perche, J.-C.

J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, 12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1964), p. 86.

G. Wlérick, J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, in The Solar Corona, J. W. Evans, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), p. 177.

Pierce, A. K.

A. K. Pierce, L. Testerman, An Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, 1972).

Pineau des Forêts, G.

D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 181 (1973).

Pope, T.

R. Fisher, T. Pope, Solar Phys. 20, 389 (1971).

Ratier, G.

G. Ratier, J. P. Rozelot, Solar Phys. 23, 394 (1971).

Reader, J.

Reynolds, F. W.

F. W. Reynolds, Solid State Light Sensitive Storage Device, U.S. Patent3,011,089, issued 28November1961.

Ritz, D. F.

D. F. Ritz, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1042 (1973).

Rozelot, J. P.

G. Ratier, J. P. Rozelot, Solar Phys. 23, 394 (1971).

Shafer, A. B.

Shklovskii, J. S.

J. S. Shklovskii, Physics of the Solar Corona (Pergamon, London, 1965).

Testerman, L.

A. K. Pierce, L. Testerman, An Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, 1972).

Walsh, E. J.

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Wendland, P. H.

P. H. Wendland, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 285 (1967).

Wlérick, G.

G. Wlérick, J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, in The Solar Corona, J. W. Evans, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), p. 177.

Zirin, H.

H. Zirin, Solar Phys. 11, 497 (1970).

J. Firor, H. Zirin, Astrophys. J. 135, 122 (1962).

12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1)

J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, 12me Coll. Int. Astrophys. Liège (1964), p. 86.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

D. R. Flower, G. Pineau des Forêts, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 181 (1973).

D. R. Flower, H. Nussbaumer, Astron. Astrophys. 31, 353 (1974).

Astron. J. (1)

J. A. Eddy, J. W. Firor, R. H. Lee, Astron. J. 72, 1352 (1967).

Astron. Zh. (2)

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 439 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 349 (1962)].

V. G. Kurt, Astron. Zh. 39, 792 (1962) [Sov. Astron. 6, 620 (1963)].

Astrophys. J. (4)

J. Firor, H. Zirin, Astrophys. J. 135, 122 (1962).

J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 148, 229 (1967).

J. A. Eddy, J. M. Malville, Astrophys. J. 150, 289 (1967).

M. Malinovsky, L. Heroux, Astrophys. J. 181, 1009 (1973).

Bell Lab. Rec. (1)

E. I. Gordon, Bell Lab. Rec. 45, 174 (1967).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

M. H. Crowell, T. M. Buck, E. F. Labuda, J. V. Dalton, E. J. Walsh, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 46, 491 (1967).

Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. (1)

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 7, 409 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

D. F. Ritz, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-20, 1042 (1973).

P. H. Wendland, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-14, 285 (1967).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

P. Fellgett, J. Phys. Rad. 19, 187 (1958).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

B. Lyot, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580 (1939).

Sci. Am. (1)

J. M. Pasachoff, Sci. Am. 229, 68 (October1973).

Solar Phys. (7)

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, J. P. Emerson, Solar Phys. 30, 351 (1913).

R. Chevalier, D. Lambert, Solar Phys. 10, 115 (1969).

G. Ratier, J. P. Rozelot, Solar Phys. 23, 394 (1971).

G. D. Finn, D. A. Landman, Solar Phys. 30, 381 (1973).

P. L. Byard, K. E. Kissell, Solar Phys. 21, 351 (1971).

H. Zirin, Solar Phys. 11, 497 (1970).

R. Fisher, T. Pope, Solar Phys. 20, 389 (1971).

Vistas Astron. (1)

J. M. Pasachoff, D. F. Muzyka, Vistas Astron. 19, 341 (1976).

Z. Astrophys. (1)

B. Edlén, Z. Astrophys. 22, 30 (1942).

Other (6)

K. E. Kissell, Paul L. Byard, in Proceedings NASA Ames Solar Eclipse Symposium (1966), p. 359.

J. S. Shklovskii, Physics of the Solar Corona (Pergamon, London, 1965).

G. Wlérick, J.-P. Dumont, J.-C. Perche, in The Solar Corona, J. W. Evans, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1963), p. 177.

F. W. Reynolds, Solid State Light Sensitive Storage Device, U.S. Patent3,011,089, issued 28November1961.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, New York, 1967).

A. K. Pierce, L. Testerman, An Atlas of the Solar Spectrum (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, 1972).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The target of the silicon diode array, which consists of p-type islands diffused into n-type substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The responsivity and quantum efficiency for an RCA 4532 silicon diode, including the near-ir values. Although at 1080 nm the responsivity and quantum efficiency are at least a factor of 10 lower than they are at 500 nm, they are sufficient to allow the desired measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A block diagram of the spectrometer system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The sensitivity of the system used at the eclipse, which included a special grating blazed in the ir.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The equipment set up on a concrete pad on site. The vidicon is visible at left center and the tape recorder at the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The readout from the spectrometer on the CRT screen, showing a 40-mm portion of the solar photospheric spectrum taken outside of eclipse including the terrestrial ir oxygen band near 760 nm. Information displayed includes, left to right and top to bottom, the wavelength position of an adjustable marker spot, the wavelength displayed per division on the screen, the power, and the integration time.

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