Abstract

Images on developed photographic emulsions can be significantly intensified by making the image silver radioactive and exposing a second emulsion to this radiation. Because the print, an autoradiograph, reproduces the original with significant increases in density and contrast, the method can be used to enhance underexposed emulsions and to increase the limits of photographic detection. This paper reports a new, practical chemical method for activating the silver, using thiourea labeled with sulfur-35, a process convenient for use in photographic laboratories. Speed increases of 13 and contrast increases of 18 were achieved with Kodak Plus-X film in this initial phase.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).
  2. A. G. Smith, H. W. Schrader, W. W. Richardson, Appl. Opt. 10, 1597 (1971).
  3. T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).
  4. J. DeMent, U.S. Patent2,603,775 (1952).
  5. E. Ostroff, Science 154, 119 (1966).
  6. R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).
  7. M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).
  8. M. Thackray, Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report ISBN 0 642 996563 (1974).
  9. M. Thackray, British Patent1394664 (1975).
  10. J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 147–148.
  11. R. Clark Jones, Photogr. Sci. Eng, 2, 57 (1958).
  12. Ref. 10, p. 148.
  13. Ref. 8, pp. A1–A5.
  14. Ref. 7, pp. 80–81.
  15. See Nuclear Regulatory Commission Code of Regulations, Title ;10, Part 20, Paragraph 303.
  16. The speed and grain size of Kodak X-ray films decrease in the order: AA, M, R. Double-coated film is used only because it is readily available from radiographers, the second coat serving no useful purpose in autoradiography since the range of the beta particles limits them to one side of the emulsion.
  17. W. Thomas, Ed., SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 819.
  18. Ref. 17, p. 816.
  19. USAF Resolving Power Test Target prepared by Buckbee-Mears Company, St. Paul, Minn.
  20. Information on licensing and required safety procedures can be obtained from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Materials Licensing, Washington, D.C. 20545.

1974

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

1972

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

1971

1970

R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).

1969

W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).

1966

E. Ostroff, Science 154, 119 (1966).

1958

R. Clark Jones, Photogr. Sci. Eng, 2, 57 (1958).

Babcock, T. A.

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

Brian, H. H.

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

Chatters, R. M.

R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).

Clark Jones, R.

R. Clark Jones, Photogr. Sci. Eng, 2, 57 (1958).

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 147–148.

DeMent, J.

J. DeMent, U.S. Patent2,603,775 (1952).

Hetherington, E. L. R.

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

Jacobs, C.

R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).

James, J. H.

W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).

James, T. H.

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

Lewis, W. C.

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).

Ostroff, E.

E. Ostroff, Science 154, 119 (1966).

Richardson, W. W.

Roman, D.

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

Schrader, H. W.

Sewell, M. H.

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

Shaw, R.

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 147–148.

Smith, A. G.

Thackray, M.

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

M. Thackray, British Patent1394664 (1975).

M. Thackray, Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report ISBN 0 642 996563 (1974).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. J.

T. A. Babcock, M. H. Sewell, W. C. Lewis, T. H. James, Astron. J. 79, 1479 (1974).

Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot.

M. Thackray, D. Roman, E. L. R. Hetherington, H. H. Brian, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 23, 79 (1972).

Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med.

R. M. Chatters, C. Jacobs, Photogr. Appl. Sci., Tech. Med., 26 (1970).

Photogr. Sci. Eng

R. Clark Jones, Photogr. Sci. Eng, 2, 57 (1958).

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

W. C. Lewis, J. H. James, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 13, 54 (1969).

Science

E. Ostroff, Science 154, 119 (1966).

Other

J. DeMent, U.S. Patent2,603,775 (1952).

M. Thackray, Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report ISBN 0 642 996563 (1974).

M. Thackray, British Patent1394664 (1975).

J. C. Dainty, R. Shaw, Image Science (Academic, London, 1974), pp. 147–148.

Ref. 10, p. 148.

Ref. 8, pp. A1–A5.

Ref. 7, pp. 80–81.

See Nuclear Regulatory Commission Code of Regulations, Title ;10, Part 20, Paragraph 303.

The speed and grain size of Kodak X-ray films decrease in the order: AA, M, R. Double-coated film is used only because it is readily available from radiographers, the second coat serving no useful purpose in autoradiography since the range of the beta particles limits them to one side of the emulsion.

W. Thomas, Ed., SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1973), p. 819.

Ref. 17, p. 816.

USAF Resolving Power Test Target prepared by Buckbee-Mears Company, St. Paul, Minn.

Information on licensing and required safety procedures can be obtained from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Division of Materials Licensing, Washington, D.C. 20545.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Increase in maximum density, contrast, and gross fog as a function of contact (exposure) time. Filled symbols represent the original Kodak Plus-x negative, while unfilled symbols represent autoradiographs on Kodak type AA, double-coated, x-ray film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic curves of a Kodak Plus-x negative and of autoradiographs made at various contact times on Kodak type AA, double-coated, and type R, single-coated, x-ray film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optimum print from an underexposed negative of a photograph of Marshall Space Flight Center on Kodak type 2424 Aerial film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimum print from an autoradiograph of the negative of Fig. 3 on Kodak type R x-ray film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optimum print from an underexposed negative of an earth resources photograph of Georgia farmland on Kodak type 2424 aerial film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimum print from an autoradiograph of the negative of Fig. 5 on Kodak type R x-ray film.

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