Abstract

A method is described for measuring the absolute light output from a gas or liquid in a cylindrical tube. The apparatus used is simple to build and use. The technique results in measurements of unusually high accuracy and sensitivity. The volume integration, often done with the aid of a mathematical model, is replaced by the physical measurement made by moving a calibrated luminous disk along the axis of the empty cylindrical tube.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).
  2. A. I. Mahan, W. F. Malmborg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 644 (1954).
  3. A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall & Science Paperbacks, London, 1974), pp. 203–211.
  4. J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 2.
  5. M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).
  6. A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

1973 (1)

M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).

1964 (1)

A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

1956 (1)

J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).

1954 (1)

Berkowitz, J.

J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).

Chupka, W. A.

J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).

Fontijn, A.

A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

Golde, M. F.

M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).

James, J. F.

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 2.

Kaufman, F.

M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).

Kistiakowsky, G. B.

J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).

Mahan, A. I.

Malmborg, W. F.

Meyer, C. B.

A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

Roche, A. E.

M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).

Schiff, H. I.

A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

Sternberg, R. S.

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 2.

Thorne, A. P.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall & Science Paperbacks, London, 1974), pp. 203–211.

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, G. B. Kistiakowsky, J. Chem. Phys. 25, 457 (1956).

M. F. Golde, A. E. Roche, F. Kaufman, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3953 (1973).

A. Fontijn, C. B. Meyer, H. I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 40, 64 (1964).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (2)

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman and Hall & Science Paperbacks, London, 1974), pp. 203–211.

J. F. James, R. S. Sternberg, The Design of Optical Spectrometers (Chapman and Hall, London, 1969), p. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry used for volume-to-surface comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design of the piston source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical arrangement used for practical spectrophotometry. The upper end window is removed from the flow tube for insertion of the piston source calibrator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative amount of light (I/I0) collected from the piston source in different cylindrical systems: (1) no tube; (2) plain glass tube; (3) silvered glass tube with sidearms. The theoretical curves R = 0 and R = 1 are for a totally nonreflecting and a totally reflecting cylinder wall, respectively.

Equations (2)

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d ¯ 2 = r L θ 2 - θ 1 - r 2 ,
I v = 4 π [ ( i v ) / ( i ¯ s ) ] ( I s ) ω .

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