Abstract

The requirements for a practical optical waveguide cable connector are reviewed. The sources of loss in fiber-to-fiber coupling, both intrinsic (fiber-related) and extrinsic (connector-related), are discussed and quantified. A multiple channel, single-fiber-per-channel connector concept, termed the overlap connector, is then described, with emphasis on the relationship of its individual design features to practical connector requirements. Experimental results with prototype overlap connectors are presented, showing that a mean extrinsic loss of less than 0.6 dB is obtained, with a standard deviation of 0.1 dB, as a result of intermating different connector halves (twelve combinations). Losses from fiber distortions are shown to account for 0.2 dB of this extrinsic loss, and, since these distortion losses are specific deficiencies of the prototype hardware (correctable in a straightforward manner), this overlap connector hardware is taken as demonstrating an extrinsic loss of 0.4 dB. Variations in joint loss and the possibility of damage to waveguides resulting from remating are also discussed. The standard deviation of joint loss obtained in a remating test is 0.09 dB.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

F. L. Thiel and R. M. Hawk, "Optical waveguide cable connection: erratum," Appl. Opt. 16, 1468-1468 (1977)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-16-6-1468

References

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  1. D. L. Bisbee, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 3153 (1971).
  2. M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).
  3. M. Börner, S. Maslowski, O. Krumpholz, “Optical Coupling Arrangment,” U.S. Patent3,704,996 (5December1972).
  4. C. G. Someda, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).
  5. R. F. Trambarulo, “Optical Fiber Connector,” U.S. Patent3,734,594 (22May1973).
  6. Y. Suematsu, “Sleeve Coupling of Multimode Fibers,” at 1973 Symposium, Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan.
  7. R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Derosier, J. Stone, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229 (1973).
  9. F. A. Braun, R. F. Trambarulo, “Method of Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,768,146 (30October1973).
  10. F. L. Thiel, R. E. Love, R. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 13, 240 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. A. J. Marcatili, “Method for Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,798,099 (19March1974).
  12. P. H. Buhite, D. A. Pinnow, “Optical Fiber Splicing Device and Technique,” U.S. Patent3,810,802 (14May1974).
  13. M. L. Dakss, A. Bridger, Electron. Lett. 10, 280 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, “A Splice Connector for Joining Linear Arrays of Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975);Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  15. E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).
  16. K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).
  17. H. Murata, S. Inao, Y. Matsuda, “Connection of Optical Fiber Cable,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmissionx, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).
  18. J. F. Dalgleish, H. H. Lukas, Electron. Lett. 11, 24 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. M. Miller, “Optical Fiber Transmission Medium,” U.S. Published Patent Application, B 408,380 (28January1975).
  20. F. W. Dabby, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 451 (1975).
  21. S. Zemon, D. Fellows, P. Sturk, Appl. Opt. 14, 815 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).
  23. C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1215 (1975).
  24. Y. Kohanzadeh, Appl. Opt. 15, 793 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).
  27. J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Olshansky, Appl. Opt. 14, 20 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  29. W. B. Gardner, D. Gloge, “Microbending Loss in Coated and Uncoated Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).
  30. R. M. Hawk, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, “Low-Loss Splicing and Connection of Optical Waveguide Cables,” at Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Seminar on Guided Optical Communications, San Diego, Calif. ( (19–20 August 1975);Electronics 29 (21August1975).
  31. D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).
  32. F. L. Thiel, D. H. Davis, Electron. Lett. 12, 340 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).
  34. R. M. Hawk, J. G. Racki, Corning Glass Works; patent applied for.
  35. See, for example, R. H. Trathen, Statics and Strength of Materials (Wiley, New York, 1954), Chap. 12.

1976

1975

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Olshansky, Appl. Opt. 14, 20 (1975).
[PubMed]

J. F. Dalgleish, H. H. Lukas, Electron. Lett. 11, 24 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Dabby, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 451 (1975).

S. Zemon, D. Fellows, P. Sturk, Appl. Opt. 14, 815 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1215 (1975).

1974

1973

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

C. G. Someda, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Derosier, J. Stone, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229 (1973).

1972

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

1971

D. L. Bisbee, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 3153 (1971).

Bisbee, D. L.

D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

D. L. Bisbee, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 3153 (1971).

E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Börner, M.

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

M. Börner, S. Maslowski, O. Krumpholz, “Optical Coupling Arrangment,” U.S. Patent3,704,996 (5December1972).

Braun, F. A.

F. A. Braun, R. F. Trambarulo, “Method of Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,768,146 (30October1973).

Bridger, A.

M. L. Dakss, A. Bridger, Electron. Lett. 10, 280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Buhite, P. H.

P. H. Buhite, D. A. Pinnow, “Optical Fiber Splicing Device and Technique,” U.S. Patent3,810,802 (14May1974).

Cherin, A. H.

A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, “A Splice Connector for Joining Linear Arrays of Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975);Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
[PubMed]

Chinnock, E. L.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Dabby, F. W.

F. W. Dabby, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 451 (1975).

Dakss, M. L.

M. L. Dakss, A. Bridger, Electron. Lett. 10, 280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dalgleish, J. F.

J. F. Dalgleish, H. H. Lukas, Electron. Lett. 11, 24 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. H.

F. L. Thiel, D. H. Davis, Electron. Lett. 12, 340 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

R. M. Derosier, J. Stone, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229 (1973).

Dyott, R. B.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, D.

Gardner, W. B.

W. B. Gardner, D. Gloge, “Microbending Loss in Coated and Uncoated Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Gloge, D.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

W. B. Gardner, D. Gloge, “Microbending Loss in Coated and Uncoated Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Gruchmann, D.

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

Guttmann, J.

J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

Hawk, R. M.

R. M. Hawk, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, “Low-Loss Splicing and Connection of Optical Waveguide Cables,” at Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Seminar on Guided Optical Communications, San Diego, Calif. ( (19–20 August 1975);Electronics 29 (21August1975).

R. M. Hawk, J. G. Racki, Corning Glass Works; patent applied for.

Honda, M.

K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Inao, S.

H. Murata, S. Inao, Y. Matsuda, “Connection of Optical Fiber Cable,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmissionx, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Kawamura, Y.

K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Kohanzadeh, Y.

Krumpholz, O.

J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

M. Börner, S. Maslowski, O. Krumpholz, “Optical Coupling Arrangment,” U.S. Patent3,704,996 (5December1972).

Kudo, T.

K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Löffler, W.

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

Love, R. E.

Lukas, H. H.

J. F. Dalgleish, H. H. Lukas, Electron. Lett. 11, 24 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Method for Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,798,099 (19March1974).

Maslowski, S.

M. Börner, S. Maslowski, O. Krumpholz, “Optical Coupling Arrangment,” U.S. Patent3,704,996 (5December1972).

Matsuda, Y.

H. Murata, S. Inao, Y. Matsuda, “Connection of Optical Fiber Cable,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmissionx, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1215 (1975).

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

C. M. Miller, “Optical Fiber Transmission Medium,” U.S. Published Patent Application, B 408,380 (28January1975).

Miyazaki, K.

K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Murata, H.

H. Murata, S. Inao, Y. Matsuda, “Connection of Optical Fiber Cable,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmissionx, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Olshansky, R.

Pfeiffer, E.

J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pinnow, D. A.

P. H. Buhite, D. A. Pinnow, “Optical Fiber Splicing Device and Technique,” U.S. Patent3,810,802 (14May1974).

Racki, J. G.

R. M. Hawk, J. G. Racki, Corning Glass Works; patent applied for.

Rich, P. J.

A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, “A Splice Connector for Joining Linear Arrays of Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975);Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
[PubMed]

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

Smith, R. L.

Someda, C. G.

C. G. Someda, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

Stern, J. R.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J. H.

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

R. M. Derosier, J. Stone, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229 (1973).

Sturk, P.

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu, “Sleeve Coupling of Multimode Fibers,” at 1973 Symposium, Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan.

Thiel, F. L.

Trambarulo, R. F.

F. A. Braun, R. F. Trambarulo, “Method of Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,768,146 (30October1973).

R. F. Trambarulo, “Optical Fiber Connector,” U.S. Patent3,734,594 (22May1973).

Trathen, R. H.

See, for example, R. H. Trathen, Statics and Strength of Materials (Wiley, New York, 1954), Chap. 12.

Zemon, S.

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst.

M. Börner, D. Gruchmann, J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, W. Löffler, Arch. Elektron. Übertragungst. 26, 288 (1972).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

C. G. Someda, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

D. L. Bisbee, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 3153 (1971).

R. M. Derosier, J. Stone, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1229 (1973).

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1215 (1975).

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563 (1973).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

F. W. Dabby, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 451 (1975).

Electron. Lett.

F. L. Thiel, D. H. Davis, Electron. Lett. 12, 340 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Guttmann, O. Krumpholz, E. Pfeiffer, Electron. Lett. 11, 582 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Dyott, J. R. Stern, J. H. Stewart, Electron. Lett. 8, 290 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dalgleish, H. H. Lukas, Electron. Lett. 11, 24 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Dakss, A. Bridger, Electron. Lett. 10, 280 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, “A Splice Connector for Joining Linear Arrays of Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975);Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
[PubMed]

E. L. Chinnock, D. Gloge, D. L. Bisbee, P. W. Smith, “End Preparation and Splicing of Optical Fiber Ribbons,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

K. Miyazaki, M. Honda, T. Kudo, Y. Kawamura, “Theoretical and Experimental Considerations of Optical Fiber Connector,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

H. Murata, S. Inao, Y. Matsuda, “Connection of Optical Fiber Cable,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmissionx, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

C. M. Miller, “Optical Fiber Transmission Medium,” U.S. Published Patent Application, B 408,380 (28January1975).

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Method for Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,798,099 (19March1974).

P. H. Buhite, D. A. Pinnow, “Optical Fiber Splicing Device and Technique,” U.S. Patent3,810,802 (14May1974).

F. A. Braun, R. F. Trambarulo, “Method of Splicing Optical Fibers,” U.S. Patent3,768,146 (30October1973).

R. F. Trambarulo, “Optical Fiber Connector,” U.S. Patent3,734,594 (22May1973).

Y. Suematsu, “Sleeve Coupling of Multimode Fibers,” at 1973 Symposium, Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan.

M. Börner, S. Maslowski, O. Krumpholz, “Optical Coupling Arrangment,” U.S. Patent3,704,996 (5December1972).

W. B. Gardner, D. Gloge, “Microbending Loss in Coated and Uncoated Optical Fibers,” at OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission, Williamsburg, Va. (7–9 January 1975).

R. M. Hawk, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, Corning Glass Works, patent applied for;R. M. Hawk, F. L. Thiel, “Low-Loss Splicing and Connection of Optical Waveguide Cables,” at Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers Seminar on Guided Optical Communications, San Diego, Calif. ( (19–20 August 1975);Electronics 29 (21August1975).

R. M. Hawk, J. G. Racki, Corning Glass Works; patent applied for.

See, for example, R. H. Trathen, Statics and Strength of Materials (Wiley, New York, 1954), Chap. 12.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cumulative intrinsic loss distributions for joints between step-index waveguides, showing the combined effects of core diameter, peak numerical aperture, and profile exponent mismatches.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cumulative intrinsic loss distributions for joints between graded-index waveguides, showing the combined effects of core diameter, peak numerical aperture, and profile exponent mismatches.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intrinsic losses attributable to mismatches in waveguide core diameters only or peak numerical apertures only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intrinsic loss attributable to mismatch in refractive index profiles only.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Extrinsic loss attributable to lateral misalignment only of step-index waveguides.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Extrinsic loss attributable to angular misalignment only (a physical impossibility, since end separation must accompany angular misalignment) of step-index fibers with NA(0) = 0.16 and n = 1.48 (index matching fluid) or 1.0 (dry).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Extrinsic loss attributable solely to separation of the ends of step-index fibers with 2a = 85 μm and NA(0) = 0.16.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Alignment and retention of waveguides by an array of three equal-diameter rods: (a) rod arrangement; (b) detail showing local elastic deformation of the three rods.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two linear arrays of alignment rods arranged to provide a multiplicity of three-rod arrays; insets show implementation in discrete and monolithic forms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illustration of the overlap concept, in which the linear alignment rod arrays are separated into left and right sections so as to overlap one another and thereby ensure alignment in the region of the joint; note extension of the lower arrays to facilitate fiber insertion.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

A longitudinal cross section of an overlap connector with end-separation control, showing accumulation regions and associated loose and tight clamps; the inset illustrates a method for preparing a loose clamp from monolithic rod arrays.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V ( r ) = 2 π 2 NA ( 0 ) 2 a 2 [ 1 - ( r / a ) α ] ( r / a ) d ( r / a ) ,
n ( r ) 2 = n ( 0 ) 2 { 1 - [ N A ( 0 ) n ( 0 ) ] 2 ( r / a ) α }
n ( r ) 2 - n ( a ) 2 N A ( r ) 2 = N A ( 0 ) 2 [ 1 - ( r / a ) α ] .
L = - 10 log 10 V 12 / V 2 .
L a = { - 10 log 10 ( a 1 a 2 ) 2 , a 1 < a 2 , 0 , a 1 a 2 .
L N A = { - 10 log 10 [ N A 1 ( 0 ) N A 2 ( 0 ) ] 2 , N A 1 ( 0 ) < N A 2 ( 0 ) , 0 , N A 1 ( 0 ) N A 2 ( 0 ) .
L α = { - 10 log 10 α 1 ( α 2 + 2 ) α 2 ( α 1 + 2 ) , α 1 < α 2 , 0 , α 1 α 2 .
L = - 10 log 10 { 1 - 2 π d 2 a [ 1 - ( d / 2 a ) 2 ] 1 / 2 - 2 π sin - 1 d 2 a } ,
L = - 10 log 10 ( cos θ { 1 2 - 1 π p ( 1 - p 2 ) 1 / 2 - 1 π sin - 1 p - q [ 1 π r ( 1 - r 2 ) 1 / 2 + 1 π sin - 1 r + 1 2 ] } ) ,
p = cos θ c ( 1 - cos θ ) sin θ c sin θ , q = cos 3 θ c ( cos 2 θ c - sin 2 θ ) 3 / 2 , r = cos 2 θ c ( 1 - cos θ ) - sin 2 θ sin θ c cos θ c sin θ , θ c = sin - 1 N A ( 0 ) n ,
L = - 10 log 10 ( a a + z tan θ c ) 2 ,

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