Abstract

An optoacoustic detector or spectrophone has been used to perform detailed measurements of the absorptivity of mixtures of water vapor in air. A C12O216 laser was used as the source, and measurements were made. at forty-nine different wavelengths from 9.2 μm to 10.7 μm. The details of the optoacoustic detector and its calibration are presented, along with a discussion of its performance characteristics. The results of the measurements of water vapor absorption show that the continuum absorption in the wavelength range covered is 5–10% lower than previous measurements.

© 1976 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. E. Burch, “Radiative Properties of the Atmospheric Windows,” in Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, 7–9 Aug. 1972, Ft. Collins, Colo. (AMS, Boston, 1972), pp. 61–68.
  2. R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).
  3. J. H. McCoy, D. B. Rensch, R. K. Long, Appl. Opt. 8, 1471 (1969).
  4. R. K. Long, F. S. Mills, E. K. Damon, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).
  5. C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).
  6. E. Max, L.-G. Rosengren, Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).
  7. P. D. Goldan, K. Goto, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4350 (1974).
  8. C. F. Dewey, Opt. Eng. 13, 483 (Nov.–Dec. 1974).
  9. L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 14, 1960 (1975).
  10. S. G. Wechter, F. Kramer, “Evaluation of Gas Phase Moisture Standards,” paper presented at 21st Natl. Symposium of the Analysis Instrument Div., Inst. Soc. of America, King of Prussia, Pa., (8 May 1975).
  11. C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 404 (1968).
  12. R. R. Patty, G. M. Russwurm, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 13, 2850 (1974).
  13. F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 129 (1972).
  14. L. Sica, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 396 (1973).
  15. L. Sica, Appl. Opt. 12, 28481973).
  16. F. Cannemeyer, A. E. DeVries, Physica 74, 196 (1974).
  17. C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).
  18. H. Liepmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  19. R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).
  20. D. E. Burch, in a private conversation, indicated that earlier measurements of water vapor continuum may be as much as 15% high.

1975 (1)

1974 (5)

R. R. Patty, G. M. Russwurm, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 13, 2850 (1974).

E. Max, L.-G. Rosengren, Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).

P. D. Goldan, K. Goto, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4350 (1974).

C. F. Dewey, Opt. Eng. 13, 483 (Nov.–Dec. 1974).

F. Cannemeyer, A. E. DeVries, Physica 74, 196 (1974).

1973 (3)

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).

L. Sica, Appl. Opt. 12, 28481973).

L. Sica, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 396 (1973).

1972 (1)

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 129 (1972).

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 404 (1968).

1967 (1)

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Burch, D. E.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

D. E. Burch, in a private conversation, indicated that earlier measurements of water vapor continuum may be as much as 15% high.

D. E. Burch, “Radiative Properties of the Atmospheric Windows,” in Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, 7–9 Aug. 1972, Ft. Collins, Colo. (AMS, Boston, 1972), pp. 61–68.

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Cannemeyer, F.

F. Cannemeyer, A. E. DeVries, Physica 74, 196 (1974).

Clough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Damon, E. K.

R. K. Long, F. S. Mills, E. K. Damon, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

DeVries, A. E.

F. Cannemeyer, A. E. DeVries, Physica 74, 196 (1974).

Dewey, C. F.

C. F. Dewey, Opt. Eng. 13, 483 (Nov.–Dec. 1974).

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Freed, C.

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 404 (1968).

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Gebhardt, F. G.

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 129 (1972).

Goldan, P. D.

P. D. Goldan, K. Goto, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4350 (1974).

Goto, K.

P. D. Goldan, K. Goto, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4350 (1974).

Hackett, C. E.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).

Ho, B.-L.

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Kamm, R. D.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).

Kramer, F.

S. G. Wechter, F. Kramer, “Evaluation of Gas Phase Moisture Standards,” paper presented at 21st Natl. Symposium of the Analysis Instrument Div., Inst. Soc. of America, King of Prussia, Pa., (8 May 1975).

Liepmann, H.

H. Liepmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Long, R. K.

J. H. McCoy, D. B. Rensch, R. K. Long, Appl. Opt. 8, 1471 (1969).

R. K. Long, F. S. Mills, E. K. Damon, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

Max, E.

E. Max, L.-G. Rosengren, Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

McClenny, W. A.

McCoy, J. H.

Mills, F. S.

R. K. Long, F. S. Mills, E. K. Damon, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

Moore, C. B.

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Morgan, D. R.

Nill, K. W.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

Patty, R. R.

Rensch, D. B.

Rosengren, L.-G.

L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 14, 1960 (1975).

E. Max, L.-G. Rosengren, Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).

Roshko, A.

H. Liepmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Rothman, L. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

Russwurm, G. M.

Sica, L.

L. Sica, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 396 (1973).

L. Sica, Appl. Opt. 12, 28481973).

Smith, D. C.

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 129 (1972).

Wechter, S. G.

S. G. Wechter, F. Kramer, “Evaluation of Gas Phase Moisture Standards,” paper presented at 21st Natl. Symposium of the Analysis Instrument Div., Inst. Soc. of America, King of Prussia, Pa., (8 May 1975).

Wood, R. E.

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Yardley, J. T.

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973).

F. G. Gebhardt, D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 129 (1972).

L. Sica, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 396 (1973).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Freed, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 404 (1968).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. D. Goldan, K. Goto, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4350 (1974).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. B. Moore, R. E. Wood, B.-L. Ho, J. T. Yardley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 4222 (1967).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Max, L.-G. Rosengren, Opt. Commun. 11, 422 (1974).

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. F. Dewey, Opt. Eng. 13, 483 (Nov.–Dec. 1974).

Physica (1)

F. Cannemeyer, A. E. DeVries, Physica 74, 196 (1974).

Other (7)

D. E. Burch, “Radiative Properties of the Atmospheric Windows,” in Conf. on Atmospheric Radiation, 7–9 Aug. 1972, Ft. Collins, Colo. (AMS, Boston, 1972), pp. 61–68.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. Clough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, “AFCRL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation,” Air Force Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (January1973).

S. G. Wechter, F. Kramer, “Evaluation of Gas Phase Moisture Standards,” paper presented at 21st Natl. Symposium of the Analysis Instrument Div., Inst. Soc. of America, King of Prussia, Pa., (8 May 1975).

H. Liepmann, A. Roshko, Elements of Gasdynamics (Wiley, New York, 1957).

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

D. E. Burch, in a private conversation, indicated that earlier measurements of water vapor continuum may be as much as 15% high.

R. K. Long, F. S. Mills, E. K. Damon, Paper presented at the OSA Conference on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, Anaheim, Calif. (19–21 March 1975).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pyrex acoustically resonant optoacoustic detector used for the water vapor absorption measurements. The inside dimensions are 15 cm in diameter and 20 cm long.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the gas handling system, optoacoustic detector, and electronic amplifier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of energy levels and transfer processes involved in the kinetic cooling effect. This effect is depicted here using the three-level approximation for CO2/N2 mixtures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Water vapor absorption at C12O216 laser lines in the P branch of the 00°1-I band, centered at 10.4-μm wavelength. Results are for water vapor partial pressures of 5.0 Torr, 10.0 Torr, 15.0 Torr in air, at a total pressure of 760 Torr and 300-K temperature. The small triangles denote wavelengths at which effects due to ammonia absorption have been subtracted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water vapor absorption at C12O216 laser lines in the R branch of the 00°1-I band, centered at 10.4-μm wavelength. Results are for water vapor partial pressures of 5.0 Torr, 10.0 Torr, 15.0 Torr in air, at a total pressure of 760 Torr and 300-K temperature. The small triangles denote wavelengths at which effects due to ammonia absorption have been subtracted.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Water vapor absorption at C12O216 laser lines in the P branch of the 00°1-II band centered at 9.4-μm wavelength. Results are for water vapor partial pressures of 5.0 Torr, 10.0 Torr, 15.0 Torr in air at a total pressure of 760 Torr and 300-K temperature. The small triangles denote wavelengths at which effects due to ammonia absorption have been subtracted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Water vapor absorption at C12O216 laser lines in the R branch of the 00°1-II band centered at 9.4-μm wavelength. Results are for water vapor partial pressures of 5.0 Torr, 10.0 Torr, 15.0 Torr in air at a total pressure of 760 Torr and 300-K temperature. The small triangles denote wavelengths at which effects due to ammonia absorption have been subtracted.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Absorption Coefficients of Water Vapor in Air at Three Water Vapor Partial Pressures: 10.4-μm Band of the C12O216 Laser

Tables Icon

Table II Absorption Coefficients of Water Vapor in Air at Three Water Vapor Partial Pressures: 9.4-μm Band of the C12O216 Laser

Tables Icon

Table III Comparison of Water Vapor Absorption Measurements at the C12O216 Laser P(20) Line, 10.59 μm

Equations (3)

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P ( ω ) = 2 3 / 2 β U k l Q ( ω ) τ t 3 π V ( 1 + τ c τ r - 1 ) [ 1 + ( ω τ t ) 2 ] 1 / 2 { 1 + [ ω ( τ c - 1 + τ r - 1 ) - 1 ] 2 } 1 / 2
P ( ω ) = 2 7 / 2 U k Q ( ω ) 5 π 2 D 2 [ ω 2 + τ t - 2 ] 1 / 2 .
k P ( 20 ) = 7.0 × 10 - 6 p ( P + 88 p ) km - 1 ,

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