Abstract

This paper describes advances in the development of several electrooptic shutter devices utilizing the quadratic electrooptic effect of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic wafers. Aperture sizes utilized in these PLZT devices ranged from 25 μm to 0.25 m. Practical applications of the shutters discussed in this paper include eye protection in military and industrial applications, a goggle-type device with dual synchronously operated PLZT shutters for use in a stereoscopic three-dimensional TV display, an electrically controlled variable density filter for use with vidicon tubes, a large-aperture photographic shutter for image motion compensation cameras, and a page composer for use in a holographic memory system.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, paper 3-E-70 given at the 72nd Annual Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (4 May 1970);Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49,411 (1970).
  2. G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, Ferroelectrics 3, 269 (1972);IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonic. SU-19, 269 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.2.
  4. W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 169 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 314 (1972).
  6. C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 426 (1973).
  7. C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 57 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. D. Thacher, “Optical Voltage Sensors,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Research Report SC-RR-70-593 (January1971);also “Optical Voltmeters,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Research Report SC-RR-710542 (October1971).
  9. J. R. Maldonado, A. H. Meitzler, Proc. IEEE 59, 368 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Maldonado, in 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.3.
  11. J. R. Maldonado, L. K. Anderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 774 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Drake, Appl. Opt. 13, 347 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. O. Harris, J. T. Cutchen, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 3, 16 (1972).
  14. J. Thomas Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, 1973 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 30.2.
  15. James O. Harris, George R. Laguna, J. Thomas Cutchen, paper 32-E1-74F given at the NICE Joint Fall Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (20 September 1974).
  16. Adequate ir protection is provided by the KG series of heat absorbing filter glasses manufactured by Schott Optical Glass, Inc. Duryea, Pennsylvania 18642.
  17. Private communications with William E. Perry, NASA, Johnson Spacecraft Center, Texas 77058.
  18. The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (Focal Press, London, 1965), pp. 769 and 984–5.
  19. Gary S. Phipps, “Large Aperture Electrooptic Photographic Shutter,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Report SLA-74-0101 (April1974).
  20. Private communications with Charles L. Townsend, Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif. 93042.

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, Ferroelectrics 3, 269 (1972);IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonic. SU-19, 269 (1972).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

J. R. Maldonado, A. H. Meitzler, Proc. IEEE 59, 368 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Maldonado, L. K. Anderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 774 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. K.

J. R. Maldonado, L. K. Anderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 774 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cutchen, J. T.

J. O. Harris, J. T. Cutchen, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 3, 16 (1972).

Cutchen, J. Thomas

J. Thomas Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, 1973 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 30.2.

Drake, M. D.

Haertling, G. H.

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, Ferroelectrics 3, 269 (1972);IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonic. SU-19, 269 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, paper 3-E-70 given at the 72nd Annual Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (4 May 1970);Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49,411 (1970).

Harris, J. O.

J. O. Harris, J. T. Cutchen, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 3, 16 (1972).

J. Thomas Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, 1973 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 30.2.

Harris, James O.

James O. Harris, George R. Laguna, J. Thomas Cutchen, paper 32-E1-74F given at the NICE Joint Fall Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (20 September 1974).

Laguna, G. R.

J. Thomas Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, 1973 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 30.2.

Laguna, George R.

James O. Harris, George R. Laguna, J. Thomas Cutchen, paper 32-E1-74F given at the NICE Joint Fall Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (20 September 1974).

Land, C. E.

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, Ferroelectrics 3, 269 (1972);IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonic. SU-19, 269 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, paper 3-E-70 given at the 72nd Annual Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (4 May 1970);Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49,411 (1970).

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 314 (1972).

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 426 (1973).

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.2.

Maldonado, J. R.

J. R. Maldonado, L. K. Anderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 774 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Maldonado, A. H. Meitzler, Proc. IEEE 59, 368 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Maldonado, in 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.3.

Meitzler, A. H.

J. R. Maldonado, A. H. Meitzler, Proc. IEEE 59, 368 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Perry, William E.

Private communications with William E. Perry, NASA, Johnson Spacecraft Center, Texas 77058.

Phipps, Gary S.

Gary S. Phipps, “Large Aperture Electrooptic Photographic Shutter,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Report SLA-74-0101 (April1974).

Smith, W. D.

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 426 (1973).

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 314 (1972).

Thacher, P. D.

P. D. Thacher, “Optical Voltage Sensors,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Research Report SC-RR-70-593 (January1971);also “Optical Voltmeters,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Research Report SC-RR-710542 (October1971).

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.2.

Thomas Cutchen, J.

James O. Harris, George R. Laguna, J. Thomas Cutchen, paper 32-E1-74F given at the NICE Joint Fall Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (20 September 1974).

Townsend, Charles L.

Private communications with Charles L. Townsend, Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif. 93042.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 169 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 57 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, Ferroelectrics 3, 269 (1972);IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrasonic. SU-19, 269 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. R. Maldonado, L. K. Anderson, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-18, 774 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. R. Maldonado, A. H. Meitzler, Proc. IEEE 59, 368 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

J. R. Maldonado, in 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.3.

P. D. Thacher, “Optical Voltage Sensors,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Research Report SC-RR-70-593 (January1971);also “Optical Voltmeters,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Research Report SC-RR-710542 (October1971).

P. D. Thacher, C. E. Land, 1971 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 31.2.

W. D. Smith, C. E. Land, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 314 (1972).

C. E. Land, W. D. Smith, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 426 (1973).

J. O. Harris, J. T. Cutchen, International Symposium, Soc. for Info. Display, Digest of Technical Papers 3, 16 (1972).

J. Thomas Cutchen, J. O. Harris, G. R. Laguna, 1973 WESCON Convention Record, Paper 30.2.

James O. Harris, George R. Laguna, J. Thomas Cutchen, paper 32-E1-74F given at the NICE Joint Fall Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (20 September 1974).

Adequate ir protection is provided by the KG series of heat absorbing filter glasses manufactured by Schott Optical Glass, Inc. Duryea, Pennsylvania 18642.

Private communications with William E. Perry, NASA, Johnson Spacecraft Center, Texas 77058.

The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography (Focal Press, London, 1965), pp. 769 and 984–5.

Gary S. Phipps, “Large Aperture Electrooptic Photographic Shutter,” Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., Report SLA-74-0101 (April1974).

Private communications with Charles L. Townsend, Naval Missile Center, Pt. Mugu, Calif. 93042.

G. H. Haertling, C. E. Land, paper 3-E-70 given at the 72nd Annual Meeting, American Ceramic Society, Electronics Division (4 May 1970);Bull. Am. Ceram. Soc. 49,411 (1970).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ON-state configuration of a PLZT electrooptic shutter; the PLZT ceramic is shown functioning as a half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PLZT electrooptic shutters with the associated power supply and detection circuitry adapted into a commercial welding hood; one shutter is maintained in the OFF state and one in the ON state to illustrate transmission differences.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laboratory prototype of a man-portable flashblindness protective goggle with self-contained power supply; also an interdigitally electroded PLZT wafer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Life test of a single 9/65/35 PLZT electrooptic shutter, 38 mm in diameter, mounted in a goggle configuration: both the ON- and OFF-state transmission at 632.8 nm is illustrated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Life test of a single 38-mm diam 9/65/35 PLZT electrooptic shutter mounted in a goggle configuration: switching time tOD3 from approximately 0.9 optical density in the ON state to the intermediate OFF-state level of 3.0 optical density is illustrated. Light source is a 632.8-nm He–Ne laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

First laboratory prototype of a 152 × 203-mm PLZT mosaic thermal and flashblindness protective window shown in the ON state. A vu graph has been placed behind the window to display the ON-state transmissivity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmissivity at λ = 5000 Å as a function of applied voltage for the 152 × 203-mm 8.9/65/35 PLZT mosaic prototype thermal and flashblindness protective window.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Switching characteristic of the 152 × 203-mm 8.9/65/35 PLZT mosaic prototype thermal and flashblindness protective window with a 30-Ω discharge resistor.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electrical input and corresponding optical throughput at 6328 Å of one lens of the viewing goggle for the stereoscopic three-dimensional TV display.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Assembled PLZT variable density optical filter and shutter with coaxial control cable for use with TV vidicon systems.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Full view of the 256-gate PLZT page composer assembly.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Magnified view of the 256-gate PLZT page composer showing the optical gates and the 25 μm diam gold wire attachments to the chrome-gold electrode lines. Electrode lines are 76 μm wide, separated by 51-μm gaps.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transmissivity of one gate in the 9/65/35 PLZT page composer as a function of applied voltage under the influence of neighbor cross talk. OFF-ON-OFF denotes an ON state for the central gate under observation and an OFF state for the adjacent gates.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Light transmission characteristic of one gate in the 9/ 65/35 PLZT 256-gate page composer for a 95-V square wave input.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Logarithmic light response of the ON to OFF transition for one gate in the 9/65/35 PLZT 256-gate page composer. The 1.02 and 1.96 OD traces are for calibration.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Relative logarithmic light response of the center one of seven consecutive optical gates being randomly operated at a 20-kHz clock rate; the data are for the 9/65/35 PLZT 256-gate page composer for ten consecutive logic states. The glitch at 150 μsec is evidence of nearest neighbor state changes.

Metrics