Abstract

The first measurements of the absorption coefficient of materials via surface electromagnetic wave (SEW) techniques are reported. By simply laying samples on a metal sheet on which SEW were passing, the transmittances and absorption coefficients of the sample have been determined. These measurements were made at microwave frequencies, but the general techniques are applicable over the entire frequency range from microwaves into the near ir. Solid samples were used in these measurements, but liquid or gases could also be studied by this new easy-to-use technique. Comments about the applicability of the technique to very thin samples are made. Another result reported is the existence of different propagating SEW modes as a function of the height of a sample (film thickness) measured from the metal-sample interface to the top of the sample at the sample-vacuum interface above.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. B8, 5418 (1973).
  7. C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.
  8. U. Fano, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 213 (1941);S. S. Attwood, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 504 (1951);L. B. Felsen, N. Marcuvitz, Radiation and Scattering of Waves (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973);R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1960).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).
  10. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).
  11. R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.
  13. J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (Freeman, San Francisco, 1958).
  14. E. V. Loewenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 108 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, submitted IEEE.

1974

1973

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. B8, 5418 (1973).

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1961

1941

Alexander, R. W.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

Arakawa, E. T.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Barker, A. S.

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. B8, 5418 (1973).

Bauer, A. C.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

Begley, D. L.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

Bell, J.

J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, submitted IEEE.

Bhasin, K.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

Burstein, E.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cowan, J. J.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Davarpanah, M.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, submitted IEEE.

Elson, J. M.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fano, U.

Fischer, B.

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

Goben, C. A.

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, submitted IEEE.

Hamm, R. N.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kovener, G. S.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, E. V.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

Parks, W. F.

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Schoenwald, J.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J. M.

J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

Strong, J.

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (Freeman, San Francisco, 1958).

Tyler, I.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

Tyler, I. L.

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

Weaver, J. H.

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Chem. Phys.

R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1973);R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, in Metal Surfaces Conference, sponsored by the European Physical Society and Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden held at Hindas, Sweden, (13–17 August 1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. S. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973);A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

A. S. Barker, Phys. Rev. B8, 5418 (1973).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. Schoenwald, E. Burstein, J. M. Elson, Solid State Commun. 12, 185 (1973);J. D. McMullen, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. II20, 45 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Bell, C. A. Goben, M. Davarpanah, K. Bhasin, D. L. Begley, A. C. Bauer, Appl. Opt., to be published.

J. Strong, Concepts of Classical Optics (Freeman, San Francisco, 1958).

C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, J. Chem. Phys., to be published.

J. M. Stone, Radiation and Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, New York, 1974).

M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, submitted IEEE.

J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials,” University of Missouri Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (March1975)and E. Burstein, W. P. Chen, Y. J. Chen, A. Hartstein, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. 11, 1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used for surface electromagnetic wave spectroscopy in the microwave region. The sample is placed on a flat, smooth stainless steel plate that is smoothly butted into the aluminum strips of equal widths on which the SEW are transmitted: (1) microwave absorbing screens placed above Al strip; (2) detector system; (3) detector grating; (4) hump; (5) stainless steel plate; (6) sample; (7) aluminum strip; (8) source grating, g = grating constant; θ = angle of incidence; and (9) source system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Percent of SEW signal lost as a large sheet of flat thin metal is raised above a piece of stainless steel (30 cm wide) on which the SEW are propagating. λ = 3.55 cm for these experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Semilogarithm plots of the SEW transmittances vs sample length for × through masonite; · through glass; and O through Plexiglas. Sample descriptions are in Table I.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance exhibiting standing waves in dielectric overlayers (Al2O3) on a nearly perfect metal (Al) at microwave frequencies (λ = 3.55 cm) vs the sample length d. In this case, the length of the sample was increased in the direction parallel to the propagation direction of the incident SEW. The various orders N of constructive interference are indicated by the arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance exhibiting effects of waveguide modes in a dielectric overlayer (Al2O3) on nearly perfect metal (Al) at microwave frequencies (λ = 3.55 cm) vs the sample height H. In this case, the height is the Al2O3 plate height above the metal (film thickness). The positions of the various modes m of propagation at maximum and minimum transmittance as predicted by Eqs. (19) and (20) are indicated by the arrows using η1 = 9.22.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Sample Materials

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L x η 1 1 / 2 n α ,
1 η 1
2 η 2 .
L x 1 / α .
T = ( 1 R ) 2 exp ( α d ) ,
k x = ω c ( η + η ) 1 / 2 .
k 1 x = ω c η 1 1 / 2 = ω c n .
T = [ 1 ( R + L ) ] 2 exp ( α d ) 1 R 2 exp ( 2 α d ) .
d = N λ 2 ( η 1 ) 1 / 2 ,
k 1 cz = k 2 bz η 1 tan ( k 2 bz H ) .
k 1 cz 2 + k 2 bz 2 = ( η 1 1 ) ω 2 / c 2 .
k 2 bz = ( 2 m + 1 ) π / 4 H .
θ sin 1 ( 1 / η 1 ) + ( η 1 1 ) 1 / 2 2 η 1 2 tan 2 [ ( η 1 1 ) 1 / 2 H ω / c ]
2 ϕ 2 ω H c ( η 1 1 ) 1 / 2 .
2 π ( m + 1 ) 2 k 2 bz H + π + 2 ϕ .
H max ( m + 1 4 ) λ 2 ( η 1 1 ) 1 / 2 .
H min ( 2 m + 1 ) λ 4 ( η 1 1 ) 1 / 2 .

Metrics