A calculation is made of the luminance and polarization of light due to single
and double reflections from the faces of particles in a surface composed of
random, irregular particles using equations of electromagnetic waves and
materials with a complex index of refraction. Some geometric properties of
shadows are derived and used. Good agreement is obtained between these results
and measurements of polarized light from Mars, Mercury, and the moon, including
the phenomenon of negative polarization at small phase angles. Negative
polarization is found to be caused by shade and shadows affecting the
double-reflected rays. Graphical results are provided for materials of varied
real and complex indices of refraction. The model can be used to calculate
polarization and luminance of rough astronomical bodies and surfaces as a
function of the viewing angle. Calculated ratios of single-reflected,
double-reflected, and randomly diffused light can be related to the surface
structure and optical properties of the material.
© 1975 Optical Society of America
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