Abstract

Two-dimensional optical effects were observed for surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) on metals at λ = 3.55 cm. Refractive processes with prisms and lenses established Snell's law experimentally. Reflection with prisms and metal sheets established the law of reflection and indicated that radiative losses were small and that Fresnel's equations hold to a good approximation for the reflectivities of SEW. A two-dimensional SEW grating was made and first-order diffraction observed. Although the experiments were performed at microwave frequencies, the principles are usable for two-dimensional SEW optics at least as far as the near ir. It was shown that the propagation constant of the SEW with an overlayer material is as though the SEW propagates entirely in the overlayer material. That is, losses in the metal substrate were negligible.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973);A. Otto, Optik 38, 566 (1973) andR. E. Collins, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.
  3. R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Ulrich, R. J. Martin, Appl. Opt. 10, 2077 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
    [CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (2)

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973);A. Otto, Optik 38, 566 (1973) andR. E. Collins, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1968 (2)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.

Alexander, R.W.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Begley, D. L.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.

Bhasin, K.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Cowan, J. J.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Davarpanah, M.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Goben, C. A.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Hamm, R. N.

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kovener, G.

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kovener, G. S.

Martin, R. J.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Parks, W. F.

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973);A. Otto, Optik 38, 566 (1973) andR. E. Collins, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, I. L.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.

Ulrich, R.

Ward, C. A.

C. A. Ward, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, G. S. Kovener, I. L. Tyler, Appl. Opt. 13, 2378 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, W. F. Parks, G. Kovener, Opt. Commun. 8, 147 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, E. T. Arakawa, J. J. Cowan, R. N. Hamm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1530 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, Surf. Sci. 34, 1 (1973);A. Otto, Optik 38, 566 (1973) andR. E. Collins, Field Theory of Guided Waves (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1960).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Otto, Z. Phys. 216, 398 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, C. A. Ward, I. L. Tyler, “Surface Properties of Materials Conference,” Univ. Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri (23–27 June 1974);to be published in Surf. Sci. (Mar.1975), see references therein;C. A. Ward, K. Bhasin, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, I. Tyler, to be published J. Chem. Phys.

R. J. Bell, M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, D. L. Begley, K. Bhasin, R.W. Alexander, to be published Appl. Opt.;R. W. Alexander, R. J. Bell, C. A. Ward, J. H. Weaver, I. L. Tyler, B. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 3492 (1972);M. Davarpanah, C. A. Goben, R. J. Bell, to be published.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Aluminum optical bench for two-dimensional SEW experiments with the SEW excited by the grating technique from a microwave antenna source system. After excitation the SEW pass under a microwave absorbing shield and go up an incline onto the optical bench.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEW beam profile represented by the normalized SEW signal (intensity) vs the half-angle beam divergence in degrees. The data were taken on the Al optical bench at different distances from the source: s = 244 cm; s = 294 cm; and s = 344 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stacked Plexiglas optical components used in some of the SEW refraction two-dimensional optics experiments: (A) 90° SEW beam deflector; (B) SEW beam displacer; and (C) SEW beam splitter. Each piece is 2.5 cm high.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Double convex Plexiglas lens made of planoconvex lens components and a plane slab.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission grating for two-dimensional SEW optics consisting of metal rods set normal to the optical bench; m is the diffraction order for the SEW diffracted waves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mirrors for reflection SEW optics: (A) plane mirror; (B) concave cylindrical mirror.

Equations (1)

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k 1 x = Re [ ω c ( η + η ) 1 / 2 ] ω c Re ( η 1 / 2 ) ω c n .

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