Abstract

Direct visual observations of image blurring by atmospheric turbulence are used to obtain line averages of the refractive index structure function coefficient Cn2 along lines of sight in the lower atmosphere. Good agreement with meteorological point measurements is obtained both above a dry land surface, where temperature fluctuations cause most of the image degradation, and above a pond, where humidity fluctuations are also important. No optical saturation effects are found, and a simplified formula for determining long-exposure, limiting-resolution angles is verified.

© 1975 Optical Society of America

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